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Hydrothermal synthesis of barium titanate nano/microrods and particle agglomerates using a sodium titanate precursor

(2021) CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL. 47(7). p.8904-8914
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Abstract
The ion exchange processes and phase formation were studied by varying the properties of 1D barium titanate nanostructures. Temperature-, timeand alkalinity-dependent experiments were performed to study the BaTiO3 formation mechanism involving the generation of chemical sites which induced in situ transformation and dissolution-precipitation reactions occurring in a hydrothermal treatment procedure. As a result of the hydro thermal synthesis, BaTiO3 nanoand microrods with surface nanomaces and nanoparticle aggregates were formed in the temperature range of 160-210 degrees C, alkalinity range of 0.025-0.15 M and time range of 45-90 min. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a significant increase in BaTiO3 material purity with increasing alkalinity from 0.025 to 0.15 M, even after a synthesis time of 45 min. In turn, Raman spectroscopy results showed that an increase in the synthesis time allowed not only BaTiO3 purity improvement, but also its phase composition control. The tetragonal phase of BaTiO3 was clearly observed after 6 h of hydrothermal synthesis at 210 degrees C and various alkalinities (from 0.025 to 0.15 M), while 45 and 90 min resulted in a mixture of cubic or tetragonal phases. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that BaTiO3 nanoparticles consisted of mainly tetragonal phases or a mixture of cubic and tetragonal phases, while BaTiO3 nano-/microrods preferably had cubic phases. Thus, variation of the temperature, time and alkalinity upon hydrothermal synthesis allowed the formation of BaTiO3 nanoand microstructures with different morphologies and phase compositions for diverse applications from biomedicine to microelectronics.
Keywords
Process Chemistry and Technology, Materials Chemistry, Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Ceramics and Composites, Hydrothermal synthesis, Barium titanate, Precursor, Microrods, Nanowires, Alkalinity

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MLA
Surmenev, R. A., et al. “Hydrothermal Synthesis of Barium Titanate Nano/Microrods and Particle Agglomerates Using a Sodium Titanate Precursor.” CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL, vol. 47, no. 7, 2021, pp. 8904–14, doi:10.1016/j.ceramint.2020.12.011.
APA
Surmenev, R. A., Chernozem, R., Skirtach, A., Bekareva, A. S., Leonova, L. A., Mathur, S., … Surmeneva, M. A. (2021). Hydrothermal synthesis of barium titanate nano/microrods and particle agglomerates using a sodium titanate precursor. CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL, 47(7), 8904–8914. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2020.12.011
Chicago author-date
Surmenev, R. A., Roman Chernozem, Andre Skirtach, A. S. Bekareva, L. A. Leonova, S. Mathur, Yu. F. Ivanov, and M. A. Surmeneva. 2021. “Hydrothermal Synthesis of Barium Titanate Nano/Microrods and Particle Agglomerates Using a Sodium Titanate Precursor.” CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL 47 (7): 8904–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2020.12.011.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Surmenev, R. A., Roman Chernozem, Andre Skirtach, A. S. Bekareva, L. A. Leonova, S. Mathur, Yu. F. Ivanov, and M. A. Surmeneva. 2021. “Hydrothermal Synthesis of Barium Titanate Nano/Microrods and Particle Agglomerates Using a Sodium Titanate Precursor.” CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL 47 (7): 8904–8914. doi:10.1016/j.ceramint.2020.12.011.
Vancouver
1.
Surmenev RA, Chernozem R, Skirtach A, Bekareva AS, Leonova LA, Mathur S, et al. Hydrothermal synthesis of barium titanate nano/microrods and particle agglomerates using a sodium titanate precursor. CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL. 2021;47(7):8904–14.
IEEE
[1]
R. A. Surmenev et al., “Hydrothermal synthesis of barium titanate nano/microrods and particle agglomerates using a sodium titanate precursor,” CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL, vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 8904–8914, 2021.
@article{8683629,
  abstract     = {{The ion exchange processes and phase formation were studied by varying the properties of 1D barium titanate nanostructures. Temperature-, timeand alkalinity-dependent experiments were performed to study the BaTiO3 formation mechanism involving the generation of chemical sites which induced in situ transformation and dissolution-precipitation reactions occurring in a hydrothermal treatment procedure. As a result of the hydro thermal synthesis, BaTiO3 nanoand microrods with surface nanomaces and nanoparticle aggregates were formed in the temperature range of 160-210 degrees C, alkalinity range of 0.025-0.15 M and time range of 45-90 min. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a significant increase in BaTiO3 material purity with increasing alkalinity from 0.025 to 0.15 M, even after a synthesis time of 45 min. In turn, Raman spectroscopy results showed that an increase in the synthesis time allowed not only BaTiO3 purity improvement, but also its phase composition control. The tetragonal phase of BaTiO3 was clearly observed after 6 h of hydrothermal synthesis at 210 degrees C and various alkalinities (from 0.025 to 0.15 M), while 45 and 90 min resulted in a mixture of cubic or tetragonal phases. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that BaTiO3 nanoparticles consisted of mainly tetragonal phases or a mixture of cubic and tetragonal phases, while BaTiO3 nano-/microrods preferably had cubic phases. Thus, variation of the temperature, time and alkalinity upon hydrothermal synthesis allowed the formation of BaTiO3 nanoand microstructures with different morphologies and phase compositions for diverse applications from biomedicine to microelectronics.}},
  author       = {{Surmenev, R. A. and Chernozem, Roman and Skirtach, Andre and Bekareva, A. S. and Leonova, L. A. and Mathur, S. and Ivanov, Yu. F. and Surmeneva, M. A.}},
  issn         = {{0272-8842}},
  journal      = {{CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL}},
  keywords     = {{Process Chemistry and Technology,Materials Chemistry,Electronic,Optical and Magnetic Materials,Surfaces,Coatings and Films,Ceramics and Composites,Hydrothermal synthesis,Barium titanate,Precursor,Microrods,Nanowires,Alkalinity}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{7}},
  pages        = {{8904--8914}},
  title        = {{Hydrothermal synthesis of barium titanate nano/microrods and particle agglomerates using a sodium titanate precursor}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2020.12.011}},
  volume       = {{47}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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