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A cohesive-based method to bridge the strain rate effect and defects of RTM-6 epoxy resin under tensile loading

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Abstract
The objective of the present work is to investigate the relationship between the strain rate effect of RTM-6 epoxy resin and the presence of defects under tensile loading by means of a numerical modelling approach. High-strain-rate tensile tests were conducted using a split Hopkinson tension bar (SHTB) test facility. Axial strains were locally measured within the gauge section of the sample using a high-speed stereo digital image correlation technique (high-speed 3D DIC). Additionally, quasi-static tensile tests were conducted to study the tensile behaviour over a wide range of strain rates. The dynamic experimental results showed an increase in strength and modulus, but also a noticeable reduction in the failure strain, compared to the quasi-static tests. Latter observation may be attributed to the effect of defects present in brittle polymeric materials. Defects lead to the generation of microcracks before the failure of samples, as confirmed by experimental observations. Two different cohesive models were therefore created to replicate the constitutive model of the material with and without defects. Through an inverse method fitting, the failure mechanism of cohesive elements was calibrated and the tensile behaviour at various strain rates was replicated. The results showed that the strain rate effect can be accurately simulated by implementing cohesive elements that mimic the presence of defects. The number of simulated defects that allows an accurate reproduction of the behaviour depends on the strain rate level and the material appears more sensitive to defects at high strain rates. Therefore, the present work validates the assumption of the relationship between strain rate effect and defects for brittle polymeric materials.
Keywords
epoxy resin, high strain rate, fracture mechanism, zero-thickness cohesive elements

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MLA
Ma, Dayou, et al. “A Cohesive-Based Method to Bridge the Strain Rate Effect and Defects of RTM-6 Epoxy Resin under Tensile Loading.” 1ST VIRTUAL EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON FRACTURE - VECF1, edited by F Lacoviello et al., vol. 28, Elsevier, 2020, pp. 1193–203, doi:10.1016/j.prostr.2020.11.101.
APA
Ma, D., Elmahdy, A., Verleysen, P., Giglio, M., & Manes, A. (2020). A cohesive-based method to bridge the strain rate effect and defects of RTM-6 epoxy resin under tensile loading. In F. Lacoviello, A. Sedmak, L. Marsavina, B. Blackman, G. Ferro, V. Shlyannikov, … L. BanksSills (Eds.), 1ST VIRTUAL EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON FRACTURE - VECF1 (Vol. 28, pp. 1193–1203). Online: Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prostr.2020.11.101
Chicago author-date
Ma, Dayou, Ahmed Elmahdy, Patricia Verleysen, Marco Giglio, and Andrea Manes. 2020. “A Cohesive-Based Method to Bridge the Strain Rate Effect and Defects of RTM-6 Epoxy Resin under Tensile Loading.” In 1ST VIRTUAL EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON FRACTURE - VECF1, edited by F Lacoviello, A Sedmak, L Marsavina, B Blackman, GA Ferro, V Shlyannikov, P Stahle, et al., 28:1193–1203. Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prostr.2020.11.101.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Ma, Dayou, Ahmed Elmahdy, Patricia Verleysen, Marco Giglio, and Andrea Manes. 2020. “A Cohesive-Based Method to Bridge the Strain Rate Effect and Defects of RTM-6 Epoxy Resin under Tensile Loading.” In 1ST VIRTUAL EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON FRACTURE - VECF1, ed by. F Lacoviello, A Sedmak, L Marsavina, B Blackman, GA Ferro, V Shlyannikov, P Stahle, Z Zhang, PMGP Moreira, Z Bozic, and L BanksSills, 28:1193–1203. Elsevier. doi:10.1016/j.prostr.2020.11.101.
Vancouver
1.
Ma D, Elmahdy A, Verleysen P, Giglio M, Manes A. A cohesive-based method to bridge the strain rate effect and defects of RTM-6 epoxy resin under tensile loading. In: Lacoviello F, Sedmak A, Marsavina L, Blackman B, Ferro G, Shlyannikov V, et al., editors. 1ST VIRTUAL EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON FRACTURE - VECF1. Elsevier; 2020. p. 1193–203.
IEEE
[1]
D. Ma, A. Elmahdy, P. Verleysen, M. Giglio, and A. Manes, “A cohesive-based method to bridge the strain rate effect and defects of RTM-6 epoxy resin under tensile loading,” in 1ST VIRTUAL EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON FRACTURE - VECF1, Online, 2020, vol. 28, pp. 1193–1203.
@inproceedings{8683168,
  abstract     = {{The objective of the present work is to investigate the relationship between the strain rate effect of RTM-6 epoxy resin and the presence of defects under tensile loading by means of a numerical modelling approach. High-strain-rate tensile tests were conducted using a split Hopkinson tension bar (SHTB) test facility. Axial strains were locally measured within the gauge section of the sample using a high-speed stereo digital image correlation technique (high-speed 3D DIC). Additionally, quasi-static tensile tests were conducted to study the tensile behaviour over a wide range of strain rates. The dynamic experimental results showed an increase in strength and modulus, but also a noticeable reduction in the failure strain, compared to the quasi-static tests. Latter observation may be attributed to the effect of defects present in brittle polymeric materials. Defects lead to the generation of microcracks before the failure of samples, as confirmed by experimental observations. Two different cohesive models were therefore created to replicate the constitutive model of the material with and without defects. Through an inverse method fitting, the failure mechanism of cohesive elements was calibrated and the tensile behaviour at various strain rates was replicated. The results showed that the strain rate effect can be accurately simulated by implementing cohesive elements that mimic the presence of defects. The number of simulated defects that allows an accurate reproduction of the behaviour depends on the strain rate level and the material appears more sensitive to defects at high strain rates. Therefore, the present work validates the assumption of the relationship between strain rate effect and defects for brittle polymeric materials.}},
  author       = {{Ma, Dayou and Elmahdy, Ahmed and Verleysen, Patricia and Giglio, Marco and Manes, Andrea}},
  booktitle    = {{1ST VIRTUAL EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON FRACTURE - VECF1}},
  editor       = {{Lacoviello, F and Sedmak, A and Marsavina, L and Blackman, B and Ferro, GA and Shlyannikov, V and Stahle, P and Zhang, Z and Moreira, PMGP and Bozic, Z and BanksSills, L}},
  issn         = {{2452-3216}},
  keywords     = {{epoxy resin,high strain rate,fracture mechanism,zero-thickness cohesive elements}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  location     = {{Online}},
  pages        = {{1193--1203}},
  publisher    = {{Elsevier}},
  title        = {{A cohesive-based method to bridge the strain rate effect and defects of RTM-6 epoxy resin under tensile loading}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prostr.2020.11.101}},
  volume       = {{28}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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