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The state-of-the-art of urban climate change modeling and observations

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Abstract
As an effect of climate change, cities need detailed information on urban climates at decision scale that cannot be easily delivered using current observation networks, nor global and even regional climate models. A review is presented of the recent literature and recommendations are formulated for future work. In most cities, historical observational records are too short, discontinuous, or of too poor quality to support trend analysis and climate change attribution. For climate modeling, on the other hand, specific dynamical and thermal parameterization dedicated to the exchange of water and energy between the atmosphere and the urban surfaces have to be implemented. Therefore, to fully understand how cities are impacted by climate change, it is important to have (1) simulations of the urban climate at fine spatial scales (including coastal hazards for coastal cities) integrating global climate scenarios with urban expansion and population growth scenarios and their associated uncertainty estimates, (2) urban climate observations, especially in Global South cities, and (3) spatial data of high resolution on urban structure and form, human behavior, and energy consumption.
Keywords
Urban heat island, Urban climate, Urbanization, Climate change, Modeling, Monitoring network, BRUSSELS CAPITAL REGION, BALANCE TEB SCHEME, LAND-USE CHANGES, HEAT-ISLAND, AIR-TEMPERATURE, NUMERICAL-SIMULATION, METROPOLITAN-AREA, SEA-BREEZE, ANTHROPOGENIC HEAT, FUTURE CLIMATE

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MLA
Hamdi, Rafiq, et al. “The State-of-the-Art of Urban Climate Change Modeling and Observations.” EARTH SYSTEMS AND ENVIRONMENT, vol. 4, Springer, 2020, pp. 631–46, doi:10.1007/s41748-020-00193-3.
APA
Hamdi, R., Kusaka, H., Doan, Q.-V., Cai, P., He, H., Luo, G., … Termonia, P. (2020). The state-of-the-art of urban climate change modeling and observations. EARTH SYSTEMS AND ENVIRONMENT, 4, 631–646. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41748-020-00193-3
Chicago author-date
Hamdi, Rafiq, Hiroyuki Kusaka, Quang-Van Doan, Peng Cai, Huili He, Geping Luo, Wenhui Kuang, et al. 2020. “The State-of-the-Art of Urban Climate Change Modeling and Observations.” EARTH SYSTEMS AND ENVIRONMENT 4: 631–46. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41748-020-00193-3.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Hamdi, Rafiq, Hiroyuki Kusaka, Quang-Van Doan, Peng Cai, Huili He, Geping Luo, Wenhui Kuang, Steven Caluwaerts, François Duchêne, Bert Van Schaeybroek, and Piet Termonia. 2020. “The State-of-the-Art of Urban Climate Change Modeling and Observations.” EARTH SYSTEMS AND ENVIRONMENT 4: 631–646. doi:10.1007/s41748-020-00193-3.
Vancouver
1.
Hamdi R, Kusaka H, Doan Q-V, Cai P, He H, Luo G, et al. The state-of-the-art of urban climate change modeling and observations. EARTH SYSTEMS AND ENVIRONMENT. 2020;4:631–46.
IEEE
[1]
R. Hamdi et al., “The state-of-the-art of urban climate change modeling and observations,” EARTH SYSTEMS AND ENVIRONMENT, vol. 4, pp. 631–646, 2020.
@article{8682723,
  abstract     = {As an effect of climate change, cities need detailed information on urban climates at decision scale that cannot be easily delivered using current observation networks, nor global and even regional climate models. A review is presented of the recent literature and recommendations are formulated for future work. In most cities, historical observational records are too short, discontinuous, or of too poor quality to support trend analysis and climate change attribution. For climate modeling, on the other hand, specific dynamical and thermal parameterization dedicated to the exchange of water and energy between the atmosphere and the urban surfaces have to be implemented. Therefore, to fully understand how cities are impacted by climate change, it is important to have (1) simulations of the urban climate at fine spatial scales (including coastal hazards for coastal cities) integrating global climate scenarios with urban expansion and population growth scenarios and their associated uncertainty estimates, (2) urban climate observations, especially in Global South cities, and (3) spatial data of high resolution on urban structure and form, human behavior, and energy consumption.},
  author       = {Hamdi, Rafiq and Kusaka, Hiroyuki and Doan, Quang-Van and Cai, Peng and He, Huili and Luo, Geping and Kuang, Wenhui and Caluwaerts, Steven and Duchêne, François and Van Schaeybroek, Bert and Termonia, Piet},
  issn         = {2509-9426},
  journal      = {EARTH SYSTEMS AND ENVIRONMENT},
  keywords     = {Urban heat island,Urban climate,Urbanization,Climate change,Modeling,Monitoring network,BRUSSELS CAPITAL REGION,BALANCE TEB SCHEME,LAND-USE CHANGES,HEAT-ISLAND,AIR-TEMPERATURE,NUMERICAL-SIMULATION,METROPOLITAN-AREA,SEA-BREEZE,ANTHROPOGENIC HEAT,FUTURE CLIMATE},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {631--646},
  publisher    = {Springer},
  title        = {The state-of-the-art of urban climate change modeling and observations},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s41748-020-00193-3},
  volume       = {4},
  year         = {2020},
}

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