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The emergence and evolution of intron‐poor and intronless genes in intron‐rich plant gene families

(2021) PLANT JOURNAL. 105(4). p.1072-1082
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Abstract
Eukaryotic genes can be classified into intronless (no introns), intron-poor (three or fewer introns per gene) or intron-rich. Early eukaryotic genes were mostly intron-rich, and their alternative splicing into multiple transcripts, giving rise to different proteins, might have played pivotal roles in adaptation and evolution. Interestingly, extant plant genomes contain many gene families with one or sometimes few sub-families with genes that are intron-poor or intronless, and it remains unknown when and how these intron-poor or intronless genes have originated and evolved, and what their possible functions are. In this study, we identified 33 such gene families that contained intronless and intron-poor sub-families. Intronless genes seemed to have first emerged in early land plant evolution, while intron-poor sub-families seemed first to have appeared in green algae. In contrast to intron-rich genes, intronless genes in intron-poor sub-families occurred later, and were subject to stronger functional constraints. Based on RNA-seq analyses in Arabidopsis and rice, intronless or intron-poor genes in AP2, EF-hand_7, bZIP, FAD_binding_4, STE_STE11, CAMK_CAMKL-CHK1 and C2 gene families were more likely to play a role in response to drought and salt stress, compared with intron-rich genes in the same gene families, whereas intronless genes in the B_lectin and S_locus_glycop gene family were more likely to participate in epigenetic processes and plant development. Understanding the origin and evolutionary trajectory, as well as the potential functions, of intronless and intron-poor sub-families provides further insight into plant genome evolution and the functional divergence of genes.
Keywords
Plant Science, Genetics, Cell Biology, abiotic stresses, adaptation, duplication, intronless gene, intron-poor sub-family

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Citation

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MLA
Liu, Hui, et al. “The Emergence and Evolution of Intron‐poor and Intronless Genes in Intron‐rich Plant Gene Families.” PLANT JOURNAL, vol. 105, no. 4, 2021, pp. 1072–82, doi:10.1111/tpj.15088.
APA
Liu, H., Lyu, H., Zhu, K., Van de Peer, Y., & Cheng, Z. (Max). (2021). The emergence and evolution of intron‐poor and intronless genes in intron‐rich plant gene families. PLANT JOURNAL, 105(4), 1072–1082. https://doi.org/10.1111/tpj.15088
Chicago author-date
Liu, Hui, Hai‐Meng Lyu, Kaikai Zhu, Yves Van de Peer, and Zong‐Ming (Max) Cheng. 2021. “The Emergence and Evolution of Intron‐poor and Intronless Genes in Intron‐rich Plant Gene Families.” PLANT JOURNAL 105 (4): 1072–82. https://doi.org/10.1111/tpj.15088.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Liu, Hui, Hai‐Meng Lyu, Kaikai Zhu, Yves Van de Peer, and Zong‐Ming (Max) Cheng. 2021. “The Emergence and Evolution of Intron‐poor and Intronless Genes in Intron‐rich Plant Gene Families.” PLANT JOURNAL 105 (4): 1072–1082. doi:10.1111/tpj.15088.
Vancouver
1.
Liu H, Lyu H, Zhu K, Van de Peer Y, Cheng Z (Max). The emergence and evolution of intron‐poor and intronless genes in intron‐rich plant gene families. PLANT JOURNAL. 2021;105(4):1072–82.
IEEE
[1]
H. Liu, H. Lyu, K. Zhu, Y. Van de Peer, and Z. (Max) Cheng, “The emergence and evolution of intron‐poor and intronless genes in intron‐rich plant gene families,” PLANT JOURNAL, vol. 105, no. 4, pp. 1072–1082, 2021.
@article{8682263,
  abstract     = {{Eukaryotic genes can be classified into intronless (no introns), intron-poor (three or fewer introns per gene) or intron-rich. Early eukaryotic genes were mostly intron-rich, and their alternative splicing into multiple transcripts, giving rise to different proteins, might have played pivotal roles in adaptation and evolution. Interestingly, extant plant genomes contain many gene families with one or sometimes few sub-families with genes that are intron-poor or intronless, and it remains unknown when and how these intron-poor or intronless genes have originated and evolved, and what their possible functions are. In this study, we identified 33 such gene families that contained intronless and intron-poor sub-families. Intronless genes seemed to have first emerged in early land plant evolution, while intron-poor sub-families seemed first to have appeared in green algae. In contrast to intron-rich genes, intronless genes in intron-poor sub-families occurred later, and were subject to stronger functional constraints. Based on RNA-seq analyses in Arabidopsis and rice, intronless or intron-poor genes in AP2, EF-hand_7, bZIP, FAD_binding_4, STE_STE11, CAMK_CAMKL-CHK1 and C2 gene families were more likely to play a role in response to drought and salt stress, compared with intron-rich genes in the same gene families, whereas intronless genes in the B_lectin and S_locus_glycop gene family were more likely to participate in epigenetic processes and plant development. Understanding the origin and evolutionary trajectory, as well as the potential functions, of intronless and intron-poor sub-families provides further insight into plant genome evolution and the functional divergence of genes.}},
  author       = {{Liu, Hui and Lyu, Hai‐Meng and Zhu, Kaikai and Van de Peer, Yves and Cheng, Zong‐Ming (Max)}},
  issn         = {{0960-7412}},
  journal      = {{PLANT JOURNAL}},
  keywords     = {{Plant Science,Genetics,Cell Biology,abiotic stresses,adaptation,duplication,intronless gene,intron-poor sub-family}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{4}},
  pages        = {{1072--1082}},
  title        = {{The emergence and evolution of intron‐poor and intronless genes in intron‐rich plant gene families}},
  url          = {{http://doi.org/10.1111/tpj.15088}},
  volume       = {{105}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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