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Chromosome-level genome assembly of a parent species of widely cultivated azaleas

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Abstract
Azaleas (Ericaceae) comprise one of the most diverse ornamental plants, renowned for their cultural and economic importance. We present a chromosome-scale genome assembly for Rhododendron simsii, the primary ancestor of azalea cultivars. Genome analyses unveil the remnants of an ancient whole-genome duplication preceding the radiation of most Ericaceae, likely contributing to the genomic architecture of flowering time. Small-scale gene duplications contribute to the expansion of gene families involved in azalea pigment biosynthesis. We reconstruct entire metabolic pathways for anthocyanins and carotenoids and their potential regulatory networks by detailed analysis of time-ordered gene co-expression networks. MYB, bHLH, and WD40 transcription factors may collectively regulate anthocyanin accumulation in R. simsii, particularly at the initial stages of flower coloration, and with WRKY transcription factors controlling progressive flower coloring at later stages. This work provides a cornerstone for understanding the underlying genetics governing flower timing and coloration and could accelerate selective breeding in azalea. Azaleas are one of the most diverse ornamental plants and have cultural and economic importance. Here, the authors report a chromosome-scale genome assembly for the primary ancestor of the azalea cultivar Rhododendro simsi and identify transcription factors that may function in flower coloration at different stages.
Keywords
ALIGNMENT, ARABIDOPSIS, ANNOTATION, METABOLISM, TOOL, BIOSYNTHESIS, POLYPLOIDY, INSIGHTS, PIGMENTS, PROVIDES

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MLA
Yang, Fu-Sheng, et al. “Chromosome-Level Genome Assembly of a Parent Species of Widely Cultivated Azaleas.” NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, vol. 11, 2020, doi:10.1038/s41467-020-18771-4.
APA
Yang, F.-S., Nie, S., Liu, H., Shi, T.-L., Tian, X.-C., Zhou, S.-S., … Mao, J.-F. (2020). Chromosome-level genome assembly of a parent species of widely cultivated azaleas. NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, 11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18771-4
Chicago author-date
Yang, Fu-Sheng, Shuai Nie, Hui Liu, Tian-Le Shi, Xue-Chan Tian, Shan-Shan Zhou, Yu-Tao Bao, et al. 2020. “Chromosome-Level Genome Assembly of a Parent Species of Widely Cultivated Azaleas.” NATURE COMMUNICATIONS 11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18771-4.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Yang, Fu-Sheng, Shuai Nie, Hui Liu, Tian-Le Shi, Xue-Chan Tian, Shan-Shan Zhou, Yu-Tao Bao, Kai-Hua Jia, Jing-Fang Guo, Wei Zhao, Na An, Ren-Gang Zhang, Quan-Zheng Yun, Xin-Zhu Wang, Chanaka Mannapperuma, Ilga Porth, Yousry Aly El-Kassaby, Nathaniel Robert Street, Xiao-Ru Wang, Yves Van de Peer, and Jian-Feng Mao. 2020. “Chromosome-Level Genome Assembly of a Parent Species of Widely Cultivated Azaleas.” NATURE COMMUNICATIONS 11. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-18771-4.
Vancouver
1.
Yang F-S, Nie S, Liu H, Shi T-L, Tian X-C, Zhou S-S, et al. Chromosome-level genome assembly of a parent species of widely cultivated azaleas. NATURE COMMUNICATIONS. 2020;11.
IEEE
[1]
F.-S. Yang et al., “Chromosome-level genome assembly of a parent species of widely cultivated azaleas,” NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, vol. 11, 2020.
@article{8681766,
  abstract     = {{Azaleas (Ericaceae) comprise one of the most diverse ornamental plants, renowned for their cultural and economic importance. We present a chromosome-scale genome assembly for Rhododendron simsii, the primary ancestor of azalea cultivars. Genome analyses unveil the remnants of an ancient whole-genome duplication preceding the radiation of most Ericaceae, likely contributing to the genomic architecture of flowering time. Small-scale gene duplications contribute to the expansion of gene families involved in azalea pigment biosynthesis. We reconstruct entire metabolic pathways for anthocyanins and carotenoids and their potential regulatory networks by detailed analysis of time-ordered gene co-expression networks. MYB, bHLH, and WD40 transcription factors may collectively regulate anthocyanin accumulation in R. simsii, particularly at the initial stages of flower coloration, and with WRKY transcription factors controlling progressive flower coloring at later stages. This work provides a cornerstone for understanding the underlying genetics governing flower timing and coloration and could accelerate selective breeding in azalea. Azaleas are one of the most diverse ornamental plants and have cultural and economic importance. Here, the authors report a chromosome-scale genome assembly for the primary ancestor of the azalea cultivar Rhododendro simsi and identify transcription factors that may function in flower coloration at different stages.}},
  articleno    = {{5269}},
  author       = {{Yang, Fu-Sheng and Nie, Shuai and Liu, Hui and Shi, Tian-Le and Tian, Xue-Chan and Zhou, Shan-Shan and Bao, Yu-Tao and Jia, Kai-Hua and Guo, Jing-Fang and Zhao, Wei and An, Na and Zhang, Ren-Gang and Yun, Quan-Zheng and Wang, Xin-Zhu and Mannapperuma, Chanaka and Porth, Ilga and El-Kassaby, Yousry Aly and Street, Nathaniel Robert and Wang, Xiao-Ru and Van de Peer, Yves and Mao, Jian-Feng}},
  issn         = {{2041-1723}},
  journal      = {{NATURE COMMUNICATIONS}},
  keywords     = {{ALIGNMENT,ARABIDOPSIS,ANNOTATION,METABOLISM,TOOL,BIOSYNTHESIS,POLYPLOIDY,INSIGHTS,PIGMENTS,PROVIDES}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{13}},
  title        = {{Chromosome-level genome assembly of a parent species of widely cultivated azaleas}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18771-4}},
  volume       = {{11}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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