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Dietary muramidase degrades bacterial peptidoglycan to NOD-activating muramyl dipeptides and reduces duodenal inflammation in broiler chickens

(2021) BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION. 126(5). p.641-651
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Abstract
Muramidases constitute a superfamily of enzymes that hydrolyze peptidoglycan (PGN) from bacterial cell walls. Recently, a fungal muramidase derived from Acremonium (A.) alcalophilum has been shown to increase broiler performance when added as a feed additive. However, the underlying mechanisms of action are not yet identified. Here we investigated the hypothesis that this muramidase can cleave PGN to muramyl dipeptide (MDP), activating nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) receptors in eukaryotic cells, potentially inducing anti-inflammatory host responses. Using Micrococcus luteus as test bacterium, it was shown that muramidase from A. alcalophilum did not display antimicrobial activity while it could cleave fluorescently-labelled PGN. It was shown that the muramidase could degrade PGN down to its minimal bioactive structure MDP by using UPLC-MS/MS. Using HEK-Blue™-hNOD2 reporter cells, it was shown that the muramidase treated PGN degradation mixture could activate NOD2. Muramidase supplementation to broiler feed increased the duodenal goblet cell and intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) abundance while reducing duodenal wall CD3+ T lymphocyte levels. Muramidase supplementation to broiler feed only had moderate effects on the duodenal, ileal and caecal microbiome. It was shown that the newly discovered muramidase hydrolyzed PGN, resulting in MDP that activates NOD2, potentially steering the host response for improved intestinal health.
Keywords
Nutrition and Dietetics, Medicine (miscellaneous), Muramidase, Nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain-containing protein 2, Intestinal feed additives, Muramyl dipeptides, Peptidoglycans, GROWTH-PERFORMANCE, LYSOZYME, EXPRESSION, ENZYMES, FEED, RNA

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Citation

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MLA
Wang, Ya, et al. “Dietary Muramidase Degrades Bacterial Peptidoglycan to NOD-Activating Muramyl Dipeptides and Reduces Duodenal Inflammation in Broiler Chickens.” BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION, vol. 126, no. 5, 2021, pp. 641–51, doi:10.1017/s0007114520004493.
APA
Wang, Y., Goossens, E., Eeckhaut, V., Pérez Calvo, E., Lopez-Ulibarri, R., Eising, I., … Van Immerseel, F. (2021). Dietary muramidase degrades bacterial peptidoglycan to NOD-activating muramyl dipeptides and reduces duodenal inflammation in broiler chickens. BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION, 126(5), 641–651. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0007114520004493
Chicago author-date
Wang, Ya, Evy Goossens, Venessa Eeckhaut, Estefania Pérez Calvo, Rual Lopez-Ulibarri, Irene Eising, Mikkel Klausen, et al. 2021. “Dietary Muramidase Degrades Bacterial Peptidoglycan to NOD-Activating Muramyl Dipeptides and Reduces Duodenal Inflammation in Broiler Chickens.” BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION 126 (5): 641–51. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0007114520004493.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Wang, Ya, Evy Goossens, Venessa Eeckhaut, Estefania Pérez Calvo, Rual Lopez-Ulibarri, Irene Eising, Mikkel Klausen, Nathan Debunne, Bart De Spiegeleer, Richard Ducatelle, and Filip Van Immerseel. 2021. “Dietary Muramidase Degrades Bacterial Peptidoglycan to NOD-Activating Muramyl Dipeptides and Reduces Duodenal Inflammation in Broiler Chickens.” BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION 126 (5): 641–651. doi:10.1017/s0007114520004493.
Vancouver
1.
Wang Y, Goossens E, Eeckhaut V, Pérez Calvo E, Lopez-Ulibarri R, Eising I, et al. Dietary muramidase degrades bacterial peptidoglycan to NOD-activating muramyl dipeptides and reduces duodenal inflammation in broiler chickens. BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION. 2021;126(5):641–51.
IEEE
[1]
Y. Wang et al., “Dietary muramidase degrades bacterial peptidoglycan to NOD-activating muramyl dipeptides and reduces duodenal inflammation in broiler chickens,” BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION, vol. 126, no. 5, pp. 641–651, 2021.
@article{8681489,
  abstract     = {{Muramidases constitute a superfamily of enzymes that hydrolyze peptidoglycan (PGN) from bacterial cell walls. Recently, a fungal muramidase derived from Acremonium (A.) alcalophilum has been shown to increase broiler performance when added as a feed additive. However, the underlying mechanisms of action are not yet identified. Here we investigated the hypothesis that this muramidase can cleave PGN to muramyl dipeptide (MDP), activating nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) receptors in eukaryotic cells, potentially inducing anti-inflammatory host responses. Using Micrococcus luteus as test bacterium, it was shown that muramidase from A. alcalophilum did not display antimicrobial activity while it could cleave fluorescently-labelled PGN. It was shown that the muramidase could degrade PGN down to its minimal bioactive structure MDP by using UPLC-MS/MS. Using HEK-Blue™-hNOD2 reporter cells, it was shown that the muramidase treated PGN degradation mixture could activate NOD2. Muramidase supplementation to broiler feed increased the duodenal goblet cell and intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) abundance while reducing duodenal wall CD3+ T lymphocyte levels. Muramidase supplementation to broiler feed only had moderate effects on the duodenal, ileal and caecal microbiome. It was shown that the newly discovered muramidase hydrolyzed PGN, resulting in MDP that activates NOD2, potentially steering the host response for improved intestinal health.}},
  author       = {{Wang, Ya and Goossens, Evy and Eeckhaut, Venessa and Pérez Calvo, Estefania and Lopez-Ulibarri, Rual and Eising, Irene and Klausen, Mikkel and Debunne, Nathan and De Spiegeleer, Bart and Ducatelle, Richard and Van Immerseel, Filip}},
  issn         = {{0007-1145}},
  journal      = {{BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION}},
  keywords     = {{Nutrition and Dietetics,Medicine (miscellaneous),Muramidase,Nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain-containing protein 2,Intestinal feed additives,Muramyl dipeptides,Peptidoglycans,GROWTH-PERFORMANCE,LYSOZYME,EXPRESSION,ENZYMES,FEED,RNA}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{5}},
  pages        = {{641--651}},
  title        = {{Dietary muramidase degrades bacterial peptidoglycan to NOD-activating muramyl dipeptides and reduces duodenal inflammation in broiler chickens}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0007114520004493}},
  volume       = {{126}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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