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Acaricide resistance status and identification of resistance mutations in populations of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae from Ethiopia

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Abstract
The intensive use of pesticides is a common practice for the management of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, in greenhouses and field farms of Ethiopia. However, incidence of resistance and possible resistance mechanisms in T. urticae populations from Ethiopia have not yet been studied. Here, we assessed the toxicity of various acaricides-bifenazate, abamectin, emamectin benzoate, profenofos, fenbutatin oxide, fenpyroximate, amitraz and chlorfenapyr-on T. urticae populations sampled from six flower greenhouse farms, three strawberry greenhouse farms, one field-grown vegetable farm and two wild populations. In parallel, all populations were screened for known target-site mutations. All tested populations were fully susceptible to bifenazate, abamectin, emamectin benzoate and profenofos, but resistant against fenbutatin oxide and fenpyroximate. Four populations showed considerable levels of resistance against amitraz and one population was resistant to chlorfenapyr. Several target-site mutations were identified in the tested populations, including G119S, A201S, T280A, G328A and F331W/C/Y in acetylcholinesterase and the F1538I and L1024V mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel. The F1538I mutation was found in eight out of 12 populations, whereas the L1024V mutation was only found in two populations. The H92R mutation in the PSST subunit of complex I and the I1017F mutation in chitin synthase 1 was detected in half of the tested populations. The G326E and I321T mutations in the glutamate-gated chloride channel 3 were also detected, but more rarely, whereas mitochondrial cytochrome b mutations were not detected. The current study revealed multiple resistance patterns in Ethiopian T. urticae populations and together with the wide presence of target-site mutations, calls for the wise use of acaricides in the management of T. urticae in Ethiopia.
Keywords
Ecology, Insect Science, General Medicine, Acari, Pesticide resistance, Resistance management, Ethiopia, Chlorfenapyr resistance, Uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation, CROSS-RESISTANCE, INSECTICIDE RESISTANCE, KOCH ACARI, ABAMECTIN RESISTANCE, TARGET-SITE, ORGANOPHOSPHATE RESISTANCE, FENPYROXIMATE RESISTANCE, PYRETHROID RESISTANCE, ETOXAZOLE RESISTANCE, MOLECULAR ANALYSIS

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MLA
Simma, Eba Alemayehu, et al. “Acaricide Resistance Status and Identification of Resistance Mutations in Populations of the Two-Spotted Spider Mite Tetranychus Urticae from Ethiopia.” EXPERIMENTAL AND APPLIED ACAROLOGY, 2020, doi:10.1007/s10493-020-00567-2.
APA
Simma, E. A., Hailu, B., Jonckheere, W., Rogiers, C., Duchateau, L., Dermauw, W., & Van Leeuwen, T. (2020). Acaricide resistance status and identification of resistance mutations in populations of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae from Ethiopia. EXPERIMENTAL AND APPLIED ACAROLOGY. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10493-020-00567-2
Chicago author-date
Simma, Eba Alemayehu, Bereket Hailu, Wim Jonckheere, Carolien Rogiers, Luc Duchateau, Wannes Dermauw, and Thomas Van Leeuwen. 2020. “Acaricide Resistance Status and Identification of Resistance Mutations in Populations of the Two-Spotted Spider Mite Tetranychus Urticae from Ethiopia.” EXPERIMENTAL AND APPLIED ACAROLOGY. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10493-020-00567-2.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Simma, Eba Alemayehu, Bereket Hailu, Wim Jonckheere, Carolien Rogiers, Luc Duchateau, Wannes Dermauw, and Thomas Van Leeuwen. 2020. “Acaricide Resistance Status and Identification of Resistance Mutations in Populations of the Two-Spotted Spider Mite Tetranychus Urticae from Ethiopia.” EXPERIMENTAL AND APPLIED ACAROLOGY. doi:10.1007/s10493-020-00567-2.
Vancouver
1.
Simma EA, Hailu B, Jonckheere W, Rogiers C, Duchateau L, Dermauw W, et al. Acaricide resistance status and identification of resistance mutations in populations of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae from Ethiopia. EXPERIMENTAL AND APPLIED ACAROLOGY. 2020;
IEEE
[1]
E. A. Simma et al., “Acaricide resistance status and identification of resistance mutations in populations of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae from Ethiopia,” EXPERIMENTAL AND APPLIED ACAROLOGY, 2020.
@article{8681414,
  abstract     = {The intensive use of pesticides is a common practice for the management of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, in greenhouses and field farms of Ethiopia. However, incidence of resistance and possible resistance mechanisms in T. urticae populations from Ethiopia have not yet been studied. Here, we assessed the toxicity of various acaricides-bifenazate, abamectin, emamectin benzoate, profenofos, fenbutatin oxide, fenpyroximate, amitraz and chlorfenapyr-on T. urticae populations sampled from six flower greenhouse farms, three strawberry greenhouse farms, one field-grown vegetable farm and two wild populations. In parallel, all populations were screened for known target-site mutations. All tested populations were fully susceptible to bifenazate, abamectin, emamectin benzoate and profenofos, but resistant against fenbutatin oxide and fenpyroximate. Four populations showed considerable levels of resistance against amitraz and one population was resistant to chlorfenapyr. Several target-site mutations were identified in the tested populations, including G119S, A201S, T280A, G328A and F331W/C/Y in acetylcholinesterase and the F1538I and L1024V mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel. The F1538I mutation was found in eight out of 12 populations, whereas the L1024V mutation was only found in two populations. The H92R mutation in the PSST subunit of complex I and the I1017F mutation in chitin synthase 1 was detected in half of the tested populations. The G326E and I321T mutations in the glutamate-gated chloride channel 3 were also detected, but more rarely, whereas mitochondrial cytochrome b mutations were not detected. The current study revealed multiple resistance patterns in Ethiopian T. urticae populations and together with the wide presence of target-site mutations, calls for the wise use of acaricides in the management of T. urticae in Ethiopia.},
  author       = {Simma, Eba Alemayehu and Hailu, Bereket and Jonckheere, Wim and Rogiers, Carolien and Duchateau, Luc and Dermauw, Wannes and Van Leeuwen, Thomas},
  issn         = {0168-8162},
  journal      = {EXPERIMENTAL AND APPLIED ACAROLOGY},
  keywords     = {Ecology,Insect Science,General Medicine,Acari,Pesticide resistance,Resistance management,Ethiopia,Chlorfenapyr resistance,Uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation,CROSS-RESISTANCE,INSECTICIDE RESISTANCE,KOCH ACARI,ABAMECTIN RESISTANCE,TARGET-SITE,ORGANOPHOSPHATE RESISTANCE,FENPYROXIMATE RESISTANCE,PYRETHROID RESISTANCE,ETOXAZOLE RESISTANCE,MOLECULAR ANALYSIS},
  language     = {eng},
  title        = {Acaricide resistance status and identification of resistance mutations in populations of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae from Ethiopia},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10493-020-00567-2},
  year         = {2020},
}

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