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The shift from traditional to an improved fish smoking oven in Ghana : implications for food safety and public health

Kennedy Bomfeh (UGent)
(2020)
Author
Promoter
(UGent) , (UGent) and Wisdom Kofi Amoa-Awua
Organization
Abstract
Smoked fish is a major animal protein source in Ghana. However, traditional processing methods result in contamination of the products with elevated levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs). Unsatisfactory handling and storage practices also predispose the products to other food safety hazards. An improved oven, called the FAO-Thiaroye Processing Technique (FTT), has been introduced as an intervention. This study investigated the efficacy of the FTT through comparative fish smoking experiments with traditional ovens. Smoked fish from the test ovens were analyzed for PAHs [benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, chrysene], biogenic amines [β-phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine], Escherichia coli (hygiene indicator), Pseudomonas sp. (biogenic amine producer) and Salmonella sp. (microbial pathogen). PAHs were identified as the most relevant hazards in the products, with a 100% prevalence and a 100% exceedance of EU regulatory limits. Histamine levels (maximum 49 mg/kg) were below the regulatory limit (200 mg/kg), and Salmonella sp. was not detected in any of the samples. Whereas PAH levels in FTT products (max. 1.8 μg/kg for BaP and max. 8 μg/kg for PAH4) were below EU limits (2 μg/kg for BaP and 12 μg/kg for PAH4), in products of the traditional ovens, the levels exceeded the regulatory limits by up to 33 times. A risk assessment showed that the FTT significantly reduced consumer exposure to the hazard. A sensory evaluation suggested consumer acceptance of FTT products. A multicriteria decision analysis considering food safety, consumer acceptance, occupational health, economic and environmental factors showed that the FTT is a viable intervention for reducing exposure to PAHs in smoked fish in Ghana, although its adoption would require significant financial inputs. The findings highlight the public health risks associated with the use of the traditional ovens, and the potency of the FTT to reduce such risks.
Keywords
smoked fish, smoking oven, food safety, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, risk assessment

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Citation

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MLA
Bomfeh, Kennedy. The Shift from Traditional to an Improved Fish Smoking Oven in Ghana : Implications for Food Safety and Public Health. Universiteit Gent. Faculteit Bio-ingenieurswetenschappen, 2020.
APA
Bomfeh, K. (2020). The shift from traditional to an improved fish smoking oven in Ghana : implications for food safety and public health. Universiteit Gent. Faculteit Bio-ingenieurswetenschappen.
Chicago author-date
Bomfeh, Kennedy. 2020. “The Shift from Traditional to an Improved Fish Smoking Oven in Ghana : Implications for Food Safety and Public Health.” Universiteit Gent. Faculteit Bio-ingenieurswetenschappen.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Bomfeh, Kennedy. 2020. “The Shift from Traditional to an Improved Fish Smoking Oven in Ghana : Implications for Food Safety and Public Health.” Universiteit Gent. Faculteit Bio-ingenieurswetenschappen.
Vancouver
1.
Bomfeh K. The shift from traditional to an improved fish smoking oven in Ghana : implications for food safety and public health. Universiteit Gent. Faculteit Bio-ingenieurswetenschappen; 2020.
IEEE
[1]
K. Bomfeh, “The shift from traditional to an improved fish smoking oven in Ghana : implications for food safety and public health,” Universiteit Gent. Faculteit Bio-ingenieurswetenschappen, 2020.
@phdthesis{8681150,
  abstract     = {Smoked fish is a major animal protein source in Ghana. However, traditional processing methods result in contamination of the products with elevated levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs). Unsatisfactory handling and storage practices also predispose the products to other food safety hazards. An improved oven, called the FAO-Thiaroye Processing Technique (FTT), has been introduced as an intervention. This study investigated the efficacy of the FTT through comparative fish smoking experiments with traditional ovens. Smoked fish from the test ovens were analyzed for PAHs [benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, chrysene], biogenic amines [β-phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine], Escherichia coli (hygiene indicator), Pseudomonas sp. (biogenic amine producer) and Salmonella sp. (microbial pathogen). PAHs were identified as the most relevant hazards in the products, with a 100% prevalence and a 100% exceedance of EU regulatory limits. Histamine levels (maximum 49 mg/kg) were below the regulatory limit (200 mg/kg), and Salmonella sp. was not detected in any of the samples. Whereas PAH levels in FTT products (max. 1.8 μg/kg for BaP and max. 8 μg/kg for PAH4) were below EU limits (2 μg/kg for BaP and 12 μg/kg for PAH4), in products of the traditional ovens, the levels exceeded the regulatory limits by up to 33 times. A risk assessment showed that the FTT significantly reduced consumer exposure to the hazard. A sensory evaluation suggested consumer acceptance of FTT products. A multicriteria decision analysis considering food safety, consumer acceptance, occupational health, economic and environmental factors showed that the FTT is a viable intervention for reducing exposure to PAHs in smoked fish in Ghana, although its adoption would require significant financial inputs. The findings highlight the public health risks associated with the use of the traditional ovens, and the potency of the FTT to reduce such risks.},
  author       = {Bomfeh, Kennedy},
  isbn         = {9789463573696},
  keywords     = {smoked fish,smoking oven,food safety,polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,risk assessment},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {xxvii, 290},
  publisher    = {Universiteit Gent. Faculteit Bio-ingenieurswetenschappen},
  school       = {Ghent University},
  title        = {The shift from traditional to an improved fish smoking oven in Ghana : implications for food safety and public health},
  year         = {2020},
}