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Abstract
Phenanthrene is one of the most common Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the marine environment. It has high lipoafinity and environmental persistence and tends to accumulate in benthic ecosystems. Exposure to phenanthrene can have severe impacts on a wide range of marine organisms, from nematodes to fish. These effects can be exacerbated with concurrent warming associated with climate change. In this study we in-vestigated the response of free-living nematode populations of the species Diplolaimelloides delyi following exposure to different phenanthrene concentrations under normal and increased temperature conditions (from 25 degrees C up to 35 degrees C). Phenanthrene was toxic to D. delyi, causing a decrease in population growth (at concentrations >_1 mu g ml(-1)) and negatively affecting their development times and reproduction (at concentrations >_2.5 mu g ml(-1)). The observed effects intensified with increasing temperature, leading to further reduced development and population growth rate, arrested reproduction, and even mortality in 100% of the populations exposed to phenanthrene concentrations over 5 mu g ml(-1) at the highest temperature used (30 degrees C). Thermal induced toxicity effects on marine populations can be significant, and current climate change and warming may have substantial implications for marine food webs and ecosystem functioning.
Keywords
Ecology, General Decision Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics, Diplolaimelloides delyi, Ecotoxicology, Global warming, Synergistic effect, Climate change, Bioindicators, POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC-HYDROCARBONS, CLIMATE-CHANGE, COMMUNITY STRUCTURE, METAZOAN MEIOFAUNA, HEAVY-METALS, MARINE, ESTUARINE, SEDIMENTS, PAHS, MIXTURES

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MLA
Pontes, Leticia Pereira, et al. “Toxic Effects of Phenanthrene Intensify with an Increase of Temperature for the Populations of a Free-Living Nematode.” ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS, vol. 120, 2021, doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.106868.
APA
Pontes, L. P., Vafeiadou, A.-M., de França, F. J. L., Cavalcante, R. A., de Araújo França, D. A., Brito, C. M., … dos Santos, G. A. P. (2021). Toxic effects of phenanthrene intensify with an increase of temperature for the populations of a free-living nematode. ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS, 120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.106868
Chicago author-date
Pontes, Leticia Pereira, Anna-Maria Vafeiadou, Flavia Juliana Lobato de França, Raianne Amorim Cavalcante, Débora Alissandra de Araújo França, Clara Moura Brito, Romulo Nepomuceno Alves, Paulo Sérgio Martins de Carvalho, and Giovanni Amadeu Paiva dos Santos. 2021. “Toxic Effects of Phenanthrene Intensify with an Increase of Temperature for the Populations of a Free-Living Nematode.” ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS 120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.106868.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Pontes, Leticia Pereira, Anna-Maria Vafeiadou, Flavia Juliana Lobato de França, Raianne Amorim Cavalcante, Débora Alissandra de Araújo França, Clara Moura Brito, Romulo Nepomuceno Alves, Paulo Sérgio Martins de Carvalho, and Giovanni Amadeu Paiva dos Santos. 2021. “Toxic Effects of Phenanthrene Intensify with an Increase of Temperature for the Populations of a Free-Living Nematode.” ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS 120. doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.106868.
Vancouver
1.
Pontes LP, Vafeiadou A-M, de França FJL, Cavalcante RA, de Araújo França DA, Brito CM, et al. Toxic effects of phenanthrene intensify with an increase of temperature for the populations of a free-living nematode. ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS. 2021;120.
IEEE
[1]
L. P. Pontes et al., “Toxic effects of phenanthrene intensify with an increase of temperature for the populations of a free-living nematode,” ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS, vol. 120, 2021.
@article{8680946,
  abstract     = {{Phenanthrene is one of the most common Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the marine environment. It has high lipoafinity and environmental persistence and tends to accumulate in benthic ecosystems. Exposure to phenanthrene can have severe impacts on a wide range of marine organisms, from nematodes to fish. These effects can be exacerbated with concurrent warming associated with climate change. In this study we in-vestigated the response of free-living nematode populations of the species Diplolaimelloides delyi following exposure to different phenanthrene concentrations under normal and increased temperature conditions (from 25 degrees C up to 35 degrees C). Phenanthrene was toxic to D. delyi, causing a decrease in population growth (at concentrations >_1 mu g ml(-1)) and negatively affecting their development times and reproduction (at concentrations >_2.5 mu g ml(-1)). The observed effects intensified with increasing temperature, leading to further reduced development and population growth rate, arrested reproduction, and even mortality in 100% of the populations exposed to phenanthrene concentrations over 5 mu g ml(-1) at the highest temperature used (30 degrees C). Thermal induced toxicity effects on marine populations can be significant, and current climate change and warming may have substantial implications for marine food webs and ecosystem functioning.}},
  articleno    = {{106868}},
  author       = {{Pontes, Leticia Pereira and Vafeiadou, Anna-Maria and de França, Flavia Juliana Lobato and Cavalcante, Raianne Amorim and de Araújo França, Débora Alissandra and Brito, Clara Moura and Alves, Romulo Nepomuceno and de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Martins and dos Santos, Giovanni Amadeu Paiva}},
  issn         = {{1470-160X}},
  journal      = {{ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS}},
  keywords     = {{Ecology,General Decision Sciences,Ecology,Evolution,Behavior and Systematics,Diplolaimelloides delyi,Ecotoxicology,Global warming,Synergistic effect,Climate change,Bioindicators,POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC-HYDROCARBONS,CLIMATE-CHANGE,COMMUNITY STRUCTURE,METAZOAN MEIOFAUNA,HEAVY-METALS,MARINE,ESTUARINE,SEDIMENTS,PAHS,MIXTURES}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{11}},
  title        = {{Toxic effects of phenanthrene intensify with an increase of temperature for the populations of a free-living nematode}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.106868}},
  volume       = {{120}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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