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Human exposure to toxic trace elements present in local crops of Sancti Spíritus, Cuba

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Abstract
Food consumption and tobacco smoke are the main sources of toxic trace elements (TTE) for humans. To the present, no study has been carried out that assessed human exposure to TTE (Cd, Pb, As, Ni, Cr, Cu, and Co) through the consumption of the tomatoes, rice, and tobacco crops grown in the Sancti Spiritus territory of Cuba. Accordingly, the main goal of this study was to assess which metals and crops should receive priority attention for metal pollution management in the local environment. Combining residue element analysis in crops with consumption data collected from a survey, a deterministic exposure assessment was performed. The study identified that priority attention should be focused on Ni and Cd. First, the average concentration of Ni in tomato and rice was found above their reference limits. As a consequence, the concentration of Ni represented a risk to the maximum scenario of children, adolescents, adults, and the elderly. Together with Ni, Cd, and Cu also contribute slightly to the cumulative risk. Then, Cd and Ni were quantified in tobacco smoke at a concentration that represented an equal risk to both active and passive smokers. Concentrations high enough to hazard from these toxic elements. The study helped to identify children as the highest stratum at risk of developing adverse health effects due to exposure to Ni and Cd. The results obtained from the basis for future research aimed at reducing the polluting pressure of TTE on human health and the environment.
Keywords
Geography, Planning and Development, Economics and Econometrics, Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law, Acceptable daily intake, Tomato, Rice, Tobacco, Active and passive smoker, Deterministic risk assessment, HEALTH-RISK ASSESSMENT, HEAVY-METALS, MACRONUTRIENT UPTAKE, CIGARETTE BUTTS, TOBACCO, RICE, VEGETABLES, TOMATO, SOILS, BIOACCUMULATION

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MLA
López Dávila, Edelbis, et al. “Human Exposure to Toxic Trace Elements Present in Local Crops of Sancti Spíritus, Cuba.” ENVIRONMENT DEVELOPMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY, 2020, doi:10.1007/s10668-020-01072-7.
APA
López Dávila, E., Martínez Castro, Y., Romero Romero, O., Du Laing, G., & Spanoghe, P. (2020). Human exposure to toxic trace elements present in local crops of Sancti Spíritus, Cuba. ENVIRONMENT DEVELOPMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-020-01072-7
Chicago author-date
López Dávila, Edelbis, Yenima Martínez Castro, Osvaldo Romero Romero, Gijs Du Laing, and Pieter Spanoghe. 2020. “Human Exposure to Toxic Trace Elements Present in Local Crops of Sancti Spíritus, Cuba.” ENVIRONMENT DEVELOPMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-020-01072-7.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
López Dávila, Edelbis, Yenima Martínez Castro, Osvaldo Romero Romero, Gijs Du Laing, and Pieter Spanoghe. 2020. “Human Exposure to Toxic Trace Elements Present in Local Crops of Sancti Spíritus, Cuba.” ENVIRONMENT DEVELOPMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY. doi:10.1007/s10668-020-01072-7.
Vancouver
1.
López Dávila E, Martínez Castro Y, Romero Romero O, Du Laing G, Spanoghe P. Human exposure to toxic trace elements present in local crops of Sancti Spíritus, Cuba. ENVIRONMENT DEVELOPMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY. 2020;
IEEE
[1]
E. López Dávila, Y. Martínez Castro, O. Romero Romero, G. Du Laing, and P. Spanoghe, “Human exposure to toxic trace elements present in local crops of Sancti Spíritus, Cuba,” ENVIRONMENT DEVELOPMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY, 2020.
@article{8680169,
  abstract     = {Food consumption and tobacco smoke are the main sources of toxic trace elements (TTE) for humans. To the present, no study has been carried out that assessed human exposure to TTE (Cd, Pb, As, Ni, Cr, Cu, and Co) through the consumption of the tomatoes, rice, and tobacco crops grown in the Sancti Spiritus territory of Cuba. Accordingly, the main goal of this study was to assess which metals and crops should receive priority attention for metal pollution management in the local environment. Combining residue element analysis in crops with consumption data collected from a survey, a deterministic exposure assessment was performed. The study identified that priority attention should be focused on Ni and Cd. First, the average concentration of Ni in tomato and rice was found above their reference limits. As a consequence, the concentration of Ni represented a risk to the maximum scenario of children, adolescents, adults, and the elderly. Together with Ni, Cd, and Cu also contribute slightly to the cumulative risk. Then, Cd and Ni were quantified in tobacco smoke at a concentration that represented an equal risk to both active and passive smokers. Concentrations high enough to hazard from these toxic elements. The study helped to identify children as the highest stratum at risk of developing adverse health effects due to exposure to Ni and Cd. The results obtained from the basis for future research aimed at reducing the polluting pressure of TTE on human health and the environment.},
  author       = {López Dávila, Edelbis and Martínez Castro, Yenima and Romero Romero, Osvaldo and Du Laing, Gijs and Spanoghe, Pieter},
  issn         = {1387-585X},
  journal      = {ENVIRONMENT DEVELOPMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY},
  keywords     = {Geography,Planning and Development,Economics and Econometrics,Management,Monitoring,Policy and Law,Acceptable daily intake,Tomato,Rice,Tobacco,Active and passive smoker,Deterministic risk assessment,HEALTH-RISK ASSESSMENT,HEAVY-METALS,MACRONUTRIENT UPTAKE,CIGARETTE BUTTS,TOBACCO,RICE,VEGETABLES,TOMATO,SOILS,BIOACCUMULATION},
  language     = {eng},
  title        = {Human exposure to toxic trace elements present in local crops of Sancti Spíritus, Cuba},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10668-020-01072-7},
  year         = {2020},
}

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