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A two-stage stochastic optimisation methodology for the operation of a chlor-alkali electrolyser under variable DAM and FCR market prices

(2020) ENERGIES. 13(21).
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Abstract
The increased penetration of renewable energy sources in the electrical grid raises the need for more power system flexibility. One of the high potential groups to provide such flexibility is the industry. Incentives to do so are provided by variable pricing and remuneration of supplied ancillary services. The operational flexibility of a chlor-alkali electrolysis process shows opportunities in the current energy and ancillary services markets. A co-optimisation of operating the chlor-alkali process under an hourly variable priced electricity sourcing strategy and the delivery of Frequency Containment Reserve (FCR) is the core of this work. A short term price prediction for the Day-Ahead Market (DAM) and FCR market as input for a deterministic optimisation shows good results under standard DAM price patterns, but leaves room for improvement in case of price fluctuations, e.g., as caused by Renewable Energy Sources (RES). A two-stage stochastic optimisation is considered to cope with the uncertainties introduced by the exogenous parameters. An improvement of the stochastic solution over the deterministic Expected Value (EV) solution is shown.
Keywords
stochastic modelling, constrained optimisation, chlor-alkali, day-ahead market, frequency containment reserve, HYDROGEN-PRODUCTION, HYBRID MODEL, ENERGY, STRATEGIES, PROVISION

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MLA
Baetens, Jens, et al. “A Two-Stage Stochastic Optimisation Methodology for the Operation of a Chlor-Alkali Electrolyser under Variable DAM and FCR Market Prices.” ENERGIES, vol. 13, no. 21, 2020, doi:10.3390/en13215675.
APA
Baetens, J., De Kooning, J., Van Eetvelde, G., & Vandevelde, L. (2020). A two-stage stochastic optimisation methodology for the operation of a chlor-alkali electrolyser under variable DAM and FCR market prices. ENERGIES, 13(21). https://doi.org/10.3390/en13215675
Chicago author-date
Baetens, Jens, Jeroen De Kooning, Greet Van Eetvelde, and Lieven Vandevelde. 2020. “A Two-Stage Stochastic Optimisation Methodology for the Operation of a Chlor-Alkali Electrolyser under Variable DAM and FCR Market Prices.” ENERGIES 13 (21). https://doi.org/10.3390/en13215675.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Baetens, Jens, Jeroen De Kooning, Greet Van Eetvelde, and Lieven Vandevelde. 2020. “A Two-Stage Stochastic Optimisation Methodology for the Operation of a Chlor-Alkali Electrolyser under Variable DAM and FCR Market Prices.” ENERGIES 13 (21). doi:10.3390/en13215675.
Vancouver
1.
Baetens J, De Kooning J, Van Eetvelde G, Vandevelde L. A two-stage stochastic optimisation methodology for the operation of a chlor-alkali electrolyser under variable DAM and FCR market prices. ENERGIES. 2020;13(21).
IEEE
[1]
J. Baetens, J. De Kooning, G. Van Eetvelde, and L. Vandevelde, “A two-stage stochastic optimisation methodology for the operation of a chlor-alkali electrolyser under variable DAM and FCR market prices,” ENERGIES, vol. 13, no. 21, 2020.
@article{8679580,
  abstract     = {{The increased penetration of renewable energy sources in the electrical grid raises the need for more power system flexibility. One of the high potential groups to provide such flexibility is the industry. Incentives to do so are provided by variable pricing and remuneration of supplied ancillary services. The operational flexibility of a chlor-alkali electrolysis process shows opportunities in the current energy and ancillary services markets. A co-optimisation of operating the chlor-alkali process under an hourly variable priced electricity sourcing strategy and the delivery of Frequency Containment Reserve (FCR) is the core of this work. A short term price prediction for the Day-Ahead Market (DAM) and FCR market as input for a deterministic optimisation shows good results under standard DAM price patterns, but leaves room for improvement in case of price fluctuations, e.g., as caused by Renewable Energy Sources (RES). A two-stage stochastic optimisation is considered to cope with the uncertainties introduced by the exogenous parameters. An improvement of the stochastic solution over the deterministic Expected Value (EV) solution is shown.}},
  articleno    = {{5675}},
  author       = {{Baetens, Jens and De Kooning, Jeroen and Van Eetvelde, Greet and Vandevelde, Lieven}},
  issn         = {{1996-1073}},
  journal      = {{ENERGIES}},
  keywords     = {{stochastic modelling,constrained optimisation,chlor-alkali,day-ahead market,frequency containment reserve,HYDROGEN-PRODUCTION,HYBRID MODEL,ENERGY,STRATEGIES,PROVISION}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{21}},
  pages        = {{19}},
  title        = {{A two-stage stochastic optimisation methodology for the operation of a chlor-alkali electrolyser under variable DAM and FCR market prices}},
  url          = {{http://doi.org/10.3390/en13215675}},
  volume       = {{13}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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