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Can the youth materialism scale be used across different countries and cultures?

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Abstract
As global material wealth rises and young people are heavily exposed to advertising across a range of channels, including rapidly developing social media where material goods are flaunted as symbols of a happy and successful lifestyle, materialism levels across the world seem likely to rise. Given consistent research showing the correlation between materialism and low well-being, this gives cause for concern. However, no studies have so far tested whether current measures of youth materialism are generalizable across different countries and cultures. Our article fills this gap by exploring through a range of internal and external validity tests whether the popular Youth Materialism Scale (YMS) can be used with confidence across China, France, Belgium, Poland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. We show that a 5-item version of YMS is invariant across the countries (internal validity) and that it broadly correlates in expected ways with six different theoretically related constructs: Self-Esteem, Life Satisfaction, Attitude to Advertising, Parental Support, TV Use, and Internet Use (external validity). We believe that researchers and policy makers can confidently use this 5-item version of the scale in international contexts.
Keywords
Marketing, Economics and Econometrics, Business and International Management, collectivism, cross-cultural, global measurement, individualism, materialism, scale development, social media, youth, SELF-ESTEEM, HEALTH BEHAVIOR, FIT INDEXES, VALUES, CHILDREN, ADOLESCENTS, VALIDATION, FAMILY, TRANSLATION, PARENT

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MLA
Zawadzka, Anna Maria, et al. “Can the Youth Materialism Scale Be Used across Different Countries and Cultures?” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MARKET RESEARCH, vol. 63, no. 3, 2021, pp. 317–34, doi:10.1177/1470785320956794.
APA
Zawadzka, A. M., Nairn, A., Lowrey, T. M., Hudders, L., Bakir, A., Rogers, A., … Spotswood, F. (2021). Can the youth materialism scale be used across different countries and cultures? INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MARKET RESEARCH, 63(3), 317–334. https://doi.org/10.1177/1470785320956794
Chicago author-date
Zawadzka, Anna Maria, Agnes Nairn, Tina M. Lowrey, Liselot Hudders, Aysen Bakir, Andrew Rogers, Veroline Cauberghe, Elodie Gentina, Hua Li, and Fiona Spotswood. 2021. “Can the Youth Materialism Scale Be Used across Different Countries and Cultures?” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MARKET RESEARCH 63 (3): 317–34. https://doi.org/10.1177/1470785320956794.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Zawadzka, Anna Maria, Agnes Nairn, Tina M. Lowrey, Liselot Hudders, Aysen Bakir, Andrew Rogers, Veroline Cauberghe, Elodie Gentina, Hua Li, and Fiona Spotswood. 2021. “Can the Youth Materialism Scale Be Used across Different Countries and Cultures?” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MARKET RESEARCH 63 (3): 317–334. doi:10.1177/1470785320956794.
Vancouver
1.
Zawadzka AM, Nairn A, Lowrey TM, Hudders L, Bakir A, Rogers A, et al. Can the youth materialism scale be used across different countries and cultures? INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MARKET RESEARCH. 2021;63(3):317–34.
IEEE
[1]
A. M. Zawadzka et al., “Can the youth materialism scale be used across different countries and cultures?,” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MARKET RESEARCH, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 317–334, 2021.
@article{8679409,
  abstract     = {{As global material wealth rises and young people are heavily exposed to advertising across a range of channels, including rapidly developing social media where material goods are flaunted as symbols of a happy and successful lifestyle, materialism levels across the world seem likely to rise. Given consistent research showing the correlation between materialism and low well-being, this gives cause for concern. However, no studies have so far tested whether current measures of youth materialism are generalizable across different countries and cultures. Our article fills this gap by exploring through a range of internal and external validity tests whether the popular Youth Materialism Scale (YMS) can be used with confidence across China, France, Belgium, Poland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. We show that a 5-item version of YMS is invariant across the countries (internal validity) and that it broadly correlates in expected ways with six different theoretically related constructs: Self-Esteem, Life Satisfaction, Attitude to Advertising, Parental Support, TV Use, and Internet Use (external validity). We believe that researchers and policy makers can confidently use this 5-item version of the scale in international contexts.}},
  author       = {{Zawadzka, Anna Maria and Nairn, Agnes and Lowrey, Tina M. and Hudders, Liselot and Bakir, Aysen and Rogers, Andrew and Cauberghe, Veroline and Gentina, Elodie and Li, Hua and Spotswood, Fiona}},
  issn         = {{1470-7853}},
  journal      = {{INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MARKET RESEARCH}},
  keywords     = {{Marketing,Economics and Econometrics,Business and International Management,collectivism,cross-cultural,global measurement,individualism,materialism,scale development,social media,youth,SELF-ESTEEM,HEALTH BEHAVIOR,FIT INDEXES,VALUES,CHILDREN,ADOLESCENTS,VALIDATION,FAMILY,TRANSLATION,PARENT}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{3}},
  pages        = {{317--334}},
  title        = {{Can the youth materialism scale be used across different countries and cultures?}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1470785320956794}},
  volume       = {{63}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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