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The commercialization of social media stars : a literature review and conceptual framework on the strategic use of social media influencers

Liselot Hudders (UGent) , Steffi De Jans (UGent) and Marijke De Veirman (UGent)
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Abstract
This review provides insight into the research on the strategic use of social media influencers. A search in the Scopus database yielded a total of 154 peer-reviewed academic publications focussing on influencer marketing, published mostly in the last three years (2018-2020). Most of these studies were empirical and used survey research, an experimental design, content analysis, or interview methodology. While a few studies examined how influencers can incite behavioural change or affect public opinion, the majority of studies focussed on the use of influencers as a commercial marketing tactic. Using Stern's Revised Communication Model for Advertising as a theoretical framework, the studies were classified according to three research characteristics: source, message, and audience. The first research stream focussed on the perspectives of influencers and communication professionals. The second stream was concerned with the content strategies used by influencers in their sponsored posts. The third research stream focussed on the appeal of influencers and the efficacy of their sponsored recommendations. Several studies in the third stream were concerned with the transparency of this covert marketing tactic. The paper concludes with a future research agenda and implications for marketing practice and public policy.
Keywords
Marketing, Communication, Influencer marketing, social media influencer, literature review, branding, advertising effectiveness, MICRO-CELEBRITY, CREDIBILITY, INSTAGRAM, TWITTER, DISCLOSURE, IMPACT, IDENTIFICATION, ADOLESCENTS, RESPONSES, TRACKING

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MLA
Hudders, Liselot, et al. “The Commercialization of Social Media Stars : A Literature Review and Conceptual Framework on the Strategic Use of Social Media Influencers.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVERTISING, vol. 40, no. 3, 2021, pp. 327–75, doi:10.1080/02650487.2020.1836925.
APA
Hudders, L., De Jans, S., & De Veirman, M. (2021). The commercialization of social media stars : a literature review and conceptual framework on the strategic use of social media influencers. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVERTISING, 40(3), 327–375. https://doi.org/10.1080/02650487.2020.1836925
Chicago author-date
Hudders, Liselot, Steffi De Jans, and Marijke De Veirman. 2021. “The Commercialization of Social Media Stars : A Literature Review and Conceptual Framework on the Strategic Use of Social Media Influencers.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVERTISING 40 (3): 327–75. https://doi.org/10.1080/02650487.2020.1836925.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Hudders, Liselot, Steffi De Jans, and Marijke De Veirman. 2021. “The Commercialization of Social Media Stars : A Literature Review and Conceptual Framework on the Strategic Use of Social Media Influencers.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVERTISING 40 (3): 327–375. doi:10.1080/02650487.2020.1836925.
Vancouver
1.
Hudders L, De Jans S, De Veirman M. The commercialization of social media stars : a literature review and conceptual framework on the strategic use of social media influencers. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVERTISING. 2021;40(3):327–75.
IEEE
[1]
L. Hudders, S. De Jans, and M. De Veirman, “The commercialization of social media stars : a literature review and conceptual framework on the strategic use of social media influencers,” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVERTISING, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 327–375, 2021.
@article{8679370,
  abstract     = {{This review provides insight into the research on the strategic use of social media influencers. A search in the Scopus database yielded a total of 154 peer-reviewed academic publications focussing on influencer marketing, published mostly in the last three years (2018-2020). Most of these studies were empirical and used survey research, an experimental design, content analysis, or interview methodology. While a few studies examined how influencers can incite behavioural change or affect public opinion, the majority of studies focussed on the use of influencers as a commercial marketing tactic. Using Stern's Revised Communication Model for Advertising as a theoretical framework, the studies were classified according to three research characteristics: source, message, and audience. The first research stream focussed on the perspectives of influencers and communication professionals. The second stream was concerned with the content strategies used by influencers in their sponsored posts. The third research stream focussed on the appeal of influencers and the efficacy of their sponsored recommendations. Several studies in the third stream were concerned with the transparency of this covert marketing tactic. The paper concludes with a future research agenda and implications for marketing practice and public policy.}},
  author       = {{Hudders, Liselot and De Jans, Steffi and De Veirman, Marijke}},
  issn         = {{0265-0487}},
  journal      = {{INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVERTISING}},
  keywords     = {{Marketing,Communication,Influencer marketing,social media influencer,literature review,branding,advertising effectiveness,MICRO-CELEBRITY,CREDIBILITY,INSTAGRAM,TWITTER,DISCLOSURE,IMPACT,IDENTIFICATION,ADOLESCENTS,RESPONSES,TRACKING}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{3}},
  pages        = {{327--375}},
  title        = {{The commercialization of social media stars : a literature review and conceptual framework on the strategic use of social media influencers}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02650487.2020.1836925}},
  volume       = {{40}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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