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Exploring microbial communities inhabiting gypsum crusts of weathered natural building stones

Laurenz Schröer (UGent) , Tim De Kock, Nico Boon (UGent) and Veerle Cnudde (UGent)
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Abstract
Microbes thrive in almost every possible environment, including natural building stones. Microbial communities affect these materials which can lead to biodeterioration. Among others, air pollution, especially SO2 and NOx, is an important actor for stone degradation. This leads to crust formation and in limestone typically to gypsum crusts. There are questions if and how sulphur-oxidizing prokaryotes can play a role in crust formation, oxidizing sulphur dioxide to sulphuric acid. This study explores the microbial community inside and underneath gypsum crusts to find out who is there and how they relate to the weathering and gypsum crust formation. We studied Lede stone, a sandy limestone or calcareous sandstone, used in many historical buildings in North Western Belgium. This stone is prone to weathering and gypsum crust formation. Two historic monuments have been sampled both in the urban environment (City hall, Ghent, Belgium) and in the countryside (Castle of Berlare, Belgium). These monuments consisted of severely weathered Lede stone: the City Hall in Ghent contained very thick botryoidal gypsum crusts while the crusts in Berlare were more superficial. Stone material was collected with a flame sterilized chisel and drill chuck and was used to isolate bacteria. To desribe the prokaryotic community: DNA was extracted, 16S rRNA genes were amplified and sequenced by Illumina Mi-Seq Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). The isolation campaign gave more information on the genus and species level of the bacterial community and makes it possible to test their abilities. The isolates from the two localities differ significantly and include diverse pigmented bacteria (orange, red, pink, yellow). The pigmented bacteria might contribute to the overall rock discoloration. The impact of the prokaryotic colonization on potential crust formation will be discussed.

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MLA
Schröer, Laurenz, et al. “Exploring Microbial Communities Inhabiting Gypsum Crusts of Weathered Natural Building Stones.” Monument Future : Decay and Conservation of Stone : Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on the Deteriotation and Conservation of Stone, edited by Siegfried Siegesmund and Bernhard Middendorf, Mitteldeutscher Verlag, 2020, pp. 95–100.
APA
Schröer, L., De Kock, T., Boon, N., & Cnudde, V. (2020). Exploring microbial communities inhabiting gypsum crusts of weathered natural building stones. In S. Siegesmund & B. Middendorf (Eds.), Monument future : decay and conservation of stone : proceedings of the 14th International Congress on the Deteriotation and Conservation of Stone (pp. 95–100). Mitteldeutscher Verlag.
Chicago author-date
Schröer, Laurenz, Tim De Kock, Nico Boon, and Veerle Cnudde. 2020. “Exploring Microbial Communities Inhabiting Gypsum Crusts of Weathered Natural Building Stones.” In Monument Future : Decay and Conservation of Stone : Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on the Deteriotation and Conservation of Stone, edited by Siegfried Siegesmund and Bernhard Middendorf, 95–100. Mitteldeutscher Verlag.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Schröer, Laurenz, Tim De Kock, Nico Boon, and Veerle Cnudde. 2020. “Exploring Microbial Communities Inhabiting Gypsum Crusts of Weathered Natural Building Stones.” In Monument Future : Decay and Conservation of Stone : Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on the Deteriotation and Conservation of Stone, ed by. Siegfried Siegesmund and Bernhard Middendorf, 95–100. Mitteldeutscher Verlag.
Vancouver
1.
Schröer L, De Kock T, Boon N, Cnudde V. Exploring microbial communities inhabiting gypsum crusts of weathered natural building stones. In: Siegesmund S, Middendorf B, editors. Monument future : decay and conservation of stone : proceedings of the 14th International Congress on the Deteriotation and Conservation of Stone. Mitteldeutscher Verlag; 2020. p. 95–100.
IEEE
[1]
L. Schröer, T. De Kock, N. Boon, and V. Cnudde, “Exploring microbial communities inhabiting gypsum crusts of weathered natural building stones,” in Monument future : decay and conservation of stone : proceedings of the 14th International Congress on the Deteriotation and Conservation of Stone, Göttingen, Germany, 2020, pp. 95–100.
@inproceedings{8679334,
  abstract     = {{Microbes thrive in almost every possible environment, including natural building stones. Microbial communities affect these materials which can lead to biodeterioration. Among others, air pollution, especially SO2 and NOx, is an important actor for stone degradation. This leads to crust formation and in limestone typically to gypsum crusts. There are questions if and how sulphur-oxidizing prokaryotes can play a role in crust formation, oxidizing sulphur dioxide to sulphuric acid. This study explores the microbial community inside and underneath gypsum crusts to find out who is there and how they relate to the weathering and gypsum crust formation. We studied Lede stone, a sandy limestone or calcareous sandstone, used in many historical buildings in North Western Belgium. This stone is prone to weathering and gypsum crust formation. Two historic monuments have been sampled both in the urban environment (City hall, Ghent, Belgium) and in the countryside (Castle of Berlare, Belgium). These monuments consisted of severely weathered Lede stone: the City Hall in Ghent contained very thick botryoidal gypsum crusts while the crusts in Berlare were more superficial. Stone material was collected with a flame sterilized chisel and drill chuck and was used to isolate bacteria. To desribe the prokaryotic community: DNA was extracted, 16S rRNA genes were amplified and sequenced by Illumina Mi-Seq Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). The isolation campaign gave more information on the genus and species level of the bacterial community and makes it possible to test their abilities. The isolates from the two localities differ significantly and include diverse pigmented bacteria (orange, red, pink, yellow). The pigmented bacteria might contribute to the overall rock discoloration. The impact of the prokaryotic colonization on potential crust formation will be discussed.}},
  author       = {{Schröer, Laurenz and De Kock, Tim and Boon, Nico and Cnudde, Veerle}},
  booktitle    = {{Monument future : decay and conservation of stone : proceedings of the 14th International Congress on the Deteriotation and Conservation of Stone}},
  editor       = {{Siegesmund, Siegfried and Middendorf, Bernhard}},
  isbn         = {{9783963111723}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  location     = {{Göttingen, Germany}},
  pages        = {{95--100}},
  publisher    = {{Mitteldeutscher Verlag}},
  title        = {{Exploring microbial communities inhabiting gypsum crusts of weathered natural building stones}},
  url          = {{http://stone2020.uni-goettingen.de}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}