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Biological flora of the British Isles : Poa nemoralis

(2020) JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY. 108(4). p.1750-1774
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Abstract
This account presents information on all aspects of the biology of Poa nemoralis L. (Wood Meadow-grass) that are relevant to understanding its ecological characteristics and behaviour. The main topics are presented within the standard framework of the Biological Flora of the British Isles: distribution, habitat, communities, responses to biotic factors, responses to environment, structure and physiology, phenology, floral and seed characters, herbivores and disease, history, and conservation. The grass Poa nemoralis is widespread and frequent to locally common across the British Isles, except for western and central Ireland, and northern Scotland. In both its native Eurasian range and introduced ranges in, for example, the Americas, its main habitat comprises temperate (mixed) deciduous woodland. The species finds important secondary habitats in hedgerows, as well as in non-woodland vegetation such as on cliffs, screes and walls or sporadically in grassland and heathland. Although not always taxonomically or morphologically distinct units, the species is suspected to comprise many cytological races and hybrid polyploid populations with variable morphology. Morphological variation among P. nemoralis populations may also be a sign of local environmental adaptation or a result of introgressive hybridization with other, morphologically variable members of Poa section Stenopoa such as P. glauca, P. compressa or P. pratensis. Poa nemoralis is a small-statured, loosely caespitose grass, with populations ranging from a few individual tufts to those visually defining the aspect of the herbaceous understorey. The species tolerates moderate to deep shade on the forest floor, yet it tends to forage for available light, occurring more and growing taller in canopy gaps, forest edges and hedgerows. The amount of light is central to its survival and reproductive ecology, being important for flower induction, seed production and seed germination. The species produces large quantities of small, light seeds which facilitate spatial and temporal dispersal. The species occupies a wide range of soil pH (3-7) and nutrient conditions (C/N ratio ranges between 10 and 25), though it clearly prefers moderately acid and somewhat drier soils with limited litter thickness, avoiding soils with mor humus types. Poa nemoralis displays distinct small-scale acidifuge responses, being absent in areas of low soil pH (<3). Poa nemoralis is a moderately strong indicator of ancient woodland: it can quickly colonize recently established wooded areas adjacent to ancient woodland when it is not hindered by dispersal limitation and elevated nutrient levels. Nonetheless, dispersal limitation impedes rapid colonization of isolated, recently established woodlands, in spite of ample records of zoochorous seed dispersal. While currently frequent to locally common, the species is at risk if ancient woodlands continue to decline in its native Eurasian range. Across N.W. Europe, it is already in moderate decline in temperate deciduous ancient woodlands because of acidification, eutrophication and darkening of the forest understorey. In its introduced ranges, it is considered invasive.
Keywords
climatic limitation, communities, ecophysiology, geographical and altitudinal distribution, germination, herbivory, mycorrhiza, reproductive biology, ENDOPHYTE-HOST ASSOCIATIONS, DEER CAPREOLUS-CAPREOLUS, PLANT-SPECIES RICHNESS, LIFE-HISTORY TRAITS, DECIDUOUS-FOREST, VASCULAR PLANTS, LAND-USE, POSTAGRICULTURAL FORESTS, ARBUSCULAR-MYCORRHIZAL, UNDERSTOREY COMMUNITY

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MLA
Plue, Jan, et al. “Biological Flora of the British Isles : Poa Nemoralis.” JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, vol. 108, no. 4, 2020, pp. 1750–74, doi:10.1111/1365-2745.13402.
APA
Plue, J., Cousins, S. A. O., De Pauw, K., Diekmann, M., Hagenblad, J., Helsen, K., … De Frenne, P. (2020). Biological flora of the British Isles : Poa nemoralis. JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.13402
Chicago author-date
Plue, Jan, Sara A. O. Cousins, Karen De Pauw, Martin Diekmann, Jenny Hagenblad, Kenny Helsen, Martin Hermy, et al. 2020. “Biological Flora of the British Isles : Poa Nemoralis.” JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.13402.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Plue, Jan, Sara A. O. Cousins, Karen De Pauw, Martin Diekmann, Jenny Hagenblad, Kenny Helsen, Martin Hermy, Jaan Liira, Anna Orczewska, Thomas Vanneste, Monika Wulf, and Pieter De Frenne. 2020. “Biological Flora of the British Isles : Poa Nemoralis.” JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY. doi:10.1111/1365-2745.13402.
Vancouver
1.
Plue J, Cousins SAO, De Pauw K, Diekmann M, Hagenblad J, Helsen K, et al. Biological flora of the British Isles : Poa nemoralis. Vol. 108, JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY. 2020. p. 1750–74.
IEEE
[1]
J. Plue et al., “Biological flora of the British Isles : Poa nemoralis,” JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, vol. 108, no. 4. pp. 1750–1774, 2020.
@misc{8679236,
  abstract     = {{This account presents information on all aspects of the biology of Poa nemoralis L. (Wood Meadow-grass) that are relevant to understanding its ecological characteristics and behaviour. The main topics are presented within the standard framework of the Biological Flora of the British Isles: distribution, habitat, communities, responses to biotic factors, responses to environment, structure and physiology, phenology, floral and seed characters, herbivores and disease, history, and conservation. The grass Poa nemoralis is widespread and frequent to locally common across the British Isles, except for western and central Ireland, and northern Scotland. In both its native Eurasian range and introduced ranges in, for example, the Americas, its main habitat comprises temperate (mixed) deciduous woodland. The species finds important secondary habitats in hedgerows, as well as in non-woodland vegetation such as on cliffs, screes and walls or sporadically in grassland and heathland. Although not always taxonomically or morphologically distinct units, the species is suspected to comprise many cytological races and hybrid polyploid populations with variable morphology. Morphological variation among P. nemoralis populations may also be a sign of local environmental adaptation or a result of introgressive hybridization with other, morphologically variable members of Poa section Stenopoa such as P. glauca, P. compressa or P. pratensis. Poa nemoralis is a small-statured, loosely caespitose grass, with populations ranging from a few individual tufts to those visually defining the aspect of the herbaceous understorey. The species tolerates moderate to deep shade on the forest floor, yet it tends to forage for available light, occurring more and growing taller in canopy gaps, forest edges and hedgerows. The amount of light is central to its survival and reproductive ecology, being important for flower induction, seed production and seed germination. The species produces large quantities of small, light seeds which facilitate spatial and temporal dispersal. The species occupies a wide range of soil pH (3-7) and nutrient conditions (C/N ratio ranges between 10 and 25), though it clearly prefers moderately acid and somewhat drier soils with limited litter thickness, avoiding soils with mor humus types. Poa nemoralis displays distinct small-scale acidifuge responses, being absent in areas of low soil pH (<3). Poa nemoralis is a moderately strong indicator of ancient woodland: it can quickly colonize recently established wooded areas adjacent to ancient woodland when it is not hindered by dispersal limitation and elevated nutrient levels. Nonetheless, dispersal limitation impedes rapid colonization of isolated, recently established woodlands, in spite of ample records of zoochorous seed dispersal. While currently frequent to locally common, the species is at risk if ancient woodlands continue to decline in its native Eurasian range. Across N.W. Europe, it is already in moderate decline in temperate deciduous ancient woodlands because of acidification, eutrophication and darkening of the forest understorey. In its introduced ranges, it is considered invasive.}},
  author       = {{Plue, Jan and Cousins, Sara A. O. and De Pauw, Karen and Diekmann, Martin and Hagenblad, Jenny and Helsen, Kenny and Hermy, Martin and Liira, Jaan and Orczewska, Anna and Vanneste, Thomas and Wulf, Monika and De Frenne, Pieter}},
  issn         = {{0022-0477}},
  keywords     = {{climatic limitation,communities,ecophysiology,geographical and altitudinal distribution,germination,herbivory,mycorrhiza,reproductive biology,ENDOPHYTE-HOST ASSOCIATIONS,DEER CAPREOLUS-CAPREOLUS,PLANT-SPECIES RICHNESS,LIFE-HISTORY TRAITS,DECIDUOUS-FOREST,VASCULAR PLANTS,LAND-USE,POSTAGRICULTURAL FORESTS,ARBUSCULAR-MYCORRHIZAL,UNDERSTOREY COMMUNITY}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{4}},
  pages        = {{1750--1774}},
  series       = {{JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY}},
  title        = {{Biological flora of the British Isles : Poa nemoralis}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.13402}},
  volume       = {{108}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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