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On the application of an optimized frequency-phase modulated waveform for enhanced infrared thermal wave radar imaging of composites

Saeid Hedayatrasa (UGent) , Gaétan Poelman (UGent) , Joost Segers (UGent) , Wim Van Paepegem (UGent) and Mathias Kersemans (UGent)
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Abstract
Thermal Wave Radar (TWR) imaging employs the concept of pulse compression in order to obtain an increased probing depth and depth resolution in infrared thermographic testing of materials. The efficiency of the TWR imaging is highly dependent on the nature of the employed excitation signal. Most studies exploit the use of an excitation signal with an analogue frequency modulation (e.g. sweep signal) or a discrete phase modulation (e.g. Barker coded signal). Recently, a novel frequency-phase modulated (FPM) waveform was introduced, and computationally verified by the current authors, which couples the concept of frequency- and phase modulation to each other in view of obtaining an optimized excitation signal for improved TWR imaging. This paper experimentally investigates the performance of the novel optimized FPM waveform for the inspection of glass and carbon fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP and CFRP) composites, using an optical infrared thermography set-up in reflection mode. The response of the halogen lamps to the FPM waveform is measured, and further the influence of the electro-thermal latency of excitation lamps on the applicability of the novel FPM excitation signal is analytically investigated. Then, the performance of the FPM waveform is experimentally investigated for both glass- and carbon fiber reinforced polymers with defects of different depths and sizes. A comparative analysis is performed with amplitude modulated (classical lock-in), frequency modulated (sweep) and phase modulated (Barker coded) excitation, each with the same time duration as the FPM waveform. The novel FPM waveform outperforms these existing waveforms in terms of defect detectability and contrast-to-noise ratio, especially for the deeper defects. Different central frequencies are examined and the improved performance of the FPM waveform in TWR imaging is demonstrated in all cases.
Keywords
Mechanical Engineering, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics, Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, LASER THERMOGRAPHY, DEFECT DETECTION, INSPECTION, Infrared Thermography, Frequency-Phase Modulation (FPM), Electro-Thermal Latency, Pulse Compression, Composite, Thermal Wave Radar

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MLA
Hedayatrasa, Saeid, et al. “On the Application of an Optimized Frequency-Phase Modulated Waveform for Enhanced Infrared Thermal Wave Radar Imaging of Composites.” OPTICS AND LASERS IN ENGINEERING, vol. 138, 2021, doi:10.1016/j.optlaseng.2020.106411.
APA
Hedayatrasa, S., Poelman, G., Segers, J., Van Paepegem, W., & Kersemans, M. (2021). On the application of an optimized frequency-phase modulated waveform for enhanced infrared thermal wave radar imaging of composites. OPTICS AND LASERS IN ENGINEERING, 138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optlaseng.2020.106411
Chicago author-date
Hedayatrasa, Saeid, Gaétan Poelman, Joost Segers, Wim Van Paepegem, and Mathias Kersemans. 2021. “On the Application of an Optimized Frequency-Phase Modulated Waveform for Enhanced Infrared Thermal Wave Radar Imaging of Composites.” OPTICS AND LASERS IN ENGINEERING 138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optlaseng.2020.106411.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Hedayatrasa, Saeid, Gaétan Poelman, Joost Segers, Wim Van Paepegem, and Mathias Kersemans. 2021. “On the Application of an Optimized Frequency-Phase Modulated Waveform for Enhanced Infrared Thermal Wave Radar Imaging of Composites.” OPTICS AND LASERS IN ENGINEERING 138. doi:10.1016/j.optlaseng.2020.106411.
Vancouver
1.
Hedayatrasa S, Poelman G, Segers J, Van Paepegem W, Kersemans M. On the application of an optimized frequency-phase modulated waveform for enhanced infrared thermal wave radar imaging of composites. OPTICS AND LASERS IN ENGINEERING. 2021;138.
IEEE
[1]
S. Hedayatrasa, G. Poelman, J. Segers, W. Van Paepegem, and M. Kersemans, “On the application of an optimized frequency-phase modulated waveform for enhanced infrared thermal wave radar imaging of composites,” OPTICS AND LASERS IN ENGINEERING, vol. 138, 2021.
@article{8678947,
  abstract     = {{Thermal Wave Radar (TWR) imaging employs the concept of pulse compression in order to obtain an increased probing depth and depth resolution in infrared thermographic testing of materials. The efficiency of the TWR imaging is highly dependent on the nature of the employed excitation signal. Most studies exploit the use of an excitation signal with an analogue frequency modulation (e.g. sweep signal) or a discrete phase modulation (e.g. Barker coded signal). Recently, a novel frequency-phase modulated (FPM) waveform was introduced, and computationally verified by the current authors, which couples the concept of frequency- and phase modulation to each other in view of obtaining an optimized excitation signal for improved TWR imaging. This paper experimentally investigates the performance of the novel optimized FPM waveform for the inspection of glass and carbon fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP and CFRP) composites, using an optical infrared thermography set-up in reflection mode. The response of the halogen lamps to the FPM waveform is measured, and further the influence of the electro-thermal latency of excitation lamps on the applicability of the novel FPM excitation signal is analytically investigated. Then, the performance of the FPM waveform is experimentally investigated for both glass- and carbon fiber reinforced polymers with defects of different depths and sizes. A comparative analysis is performed with amplitude modulated (classical lock-in), frequency modulated (sweep) and phase modulated (Barker coded) excitation, each with the same time duration as the FPM waveform. The novel FPM waveform outperforms these existing waveforms in terms of defect detectability and contrast-to-noise ratio, especially for the deeper defects. Different central frequencies are examined and the improved performance of the FPM waveform in TWR imaging is demonstrated in all cases.}},
  articleno    = {{106411}},
  author       = {{Hedayatrasa, Saeid and Poelman, Gaétan and Segers, Joost and Van Paepegem, Wim and Kersemans, Mathias}},
  issn         = {{0143-8166}},
  journal      = {{OPTICS AND LASERS IN ENGINEERING}},
  keywords     = {{Mechanical Engineering,Electrical and Electronic Engineering,Atomic and Molecular Physics,and Optics,Electronic,Optical and Magnetic Materials,LASER THERMOGRAPHY,DEFECT DETECTION,INSPECTION,Infrared Thermography,Frequency-Phase Modulation (FPM),Electro-Thermal Latency,Pulse Compression,Composite,Thermal Wave Radar}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{12}},
  title        = {{On the application of an optimized frequency-phase modulated waveform for enhanced infrared thermal wave radar imaging of composites}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.optlaseng.2020.106411}},
  volume       = {{138}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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