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The shrimp nephrocomplex serves as a major portal of pathogen entry and is involved in the molting process

Gaëtan De Gryse (UGent) , Thuong Van Khuong (UGent) , Benedicte Descamps (UGent) , Wim Van Den Broeck (UGent) , Christian Vanhove (UGent) , Pieter Cornillie (UGent) , Patrick Sorgeloos (UGent) , Peter Bossier (UGent) and Hans Nauwynck (UGent)
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Abstract
Viruses, such as white spot syndrome virus, and bacteria, such as Vibrio species, wreak havoc in shrimp aquaculture [C. M. Escobedo-Bonilla et al., J. Fish. Dis. 31, 1–18 (2008)]. As the main portal of entry for shrimp-related pathogens remain unclear, infectious diseases are difficult to prevent and control. Because the cuticle is a strong pathogen barrier, regions lacking cuticular lining, such as the shrimp’s excretory organ, “the antennal gland,” are major candidate entry portals [M. Corteel et al., Vet. Microbiol. 137, 209–216 (2009)]. The antennal gland, up until now morphologically underexplored, is studied using several imaging techniques. Using histology-based three-dimensional technology, we demonstrate that the antennal gland resembles a kidney, connected to a urinary bladder with a nephropore (exit opening) and a complex of diverticula, spread throughout the cephalothorax. Micromagnetic resonance imaging of live shrimp not only confirms the histology-based model, but also indicates that the filling of the diverticula is linked to the molting cycle and possibly involved therein. Based on function and complexity, we propose to rename the antennal gland as the “nephrocomplex.” By an intrabladder inoculation, we showed high susceptibility of this nephrocomplex to both white spot syndrome virus and Vibrio infection compared to peroral inoculation. An induced drop in salinity allowed the virus to enter the nephrocomplex in a natural way and caused a general infection followed by death; fluorescent beads were used to demonstrate that particles may indeed enter through the nephropore. These findings pave the way for oriented disease control in shrimp.
Keywords
Multidisciplinary, shrimp, antennal gland, morphology, spot syndrome virus, Vibrio, SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS, PENAEUS-MONODON, EXPERIMENTAL-INFECTION, BACULOVIRUS WSBV, ANTENNAL GLAND, TRANSMISSION, MORPHOLOGY, SALINITY, LOBSTERS, VANNAMEI

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MLA
De Gryse, Gaëtan, et al. “The Shrimp Nephrocomplex Serves as a Major Portal of Pathogen Entry and Is Involved in the Molting Process.” PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, vol. 117, no. 45, 2020, pp. 28374–83, doi:10.1073/pnas.2013518117.
APA
De Gryse, G., Khuong, T. V., Descamps, B., Van Den Broeck, W., Vanhove, C., Cornillie, P., … Nauwynck, H. (2020). The shrimp nephrocomplex serves as a major portal of pathogen entry and is involved in the molting process. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 117(45), 28374–28383. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2013518117
Chicago author-date
De Gryse, Gaëtan, Thuong Van Khuong, Benedicte Descamps, Wim Van Den Broeck, Christian Vanhove, Pieter Cornillie, Patrick Sorgeloos, Peter Bossier, and Hans Nauwynck. 2020. “The Shrimp Nephrocomplex Serves as a Major Portal of Pathogen Entry and Is Involved in the Molting Process.” PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 117 (45): 28374–83. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2013518117.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
De Gryse, Gaëtan, Thuong Van Khuong, Benedicte Descamps, Wim Van Den Broeck, Christian Vanhove, Pieter Cornillie, Patrick Sorgeloos, Peter Bossier, and Hans Nauwynck. 2020. “The Shrimp Nephrocomplex Serves as a Major Portal of Pathogen Entry and Is Involved in the Molting Process.” PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 117 (45): 28374–28383. doi:10.1073/pnas.2013518117.
Vancouver
1.
De Gryse G, Khuong TV, Descamps B, Van Den Broeck W, Vanhove C, Cornillie P, et al. The shrimp nephrocomplex serves as a major portal of pathogen entry and is involved in the molting process. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 2020;117(45):28374–83.
IEEE
[1]
G. De Gryse et al., “The shrimp nephrocomplex serves as a major portal of pathogen entry and is involved in the molting process,” PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, vol. 117, no. 45, pp. 28374–28383, 2020.
@article{8678903,
  abstract     = {{Viruses, such as white spot syndrome virus, and bacteria, such as Vibrio species, wreak havoc in shrimp aquaculture [C. M. Escobedo-Bonilla et al., J. Fish. Dis. 31, 1–18 (2008)]. As the main portal of entry for shrimp-related pathogens remain unclear, infectious diseases are difficult to prevent and control. Because the cuticle is a strong pathogen barrier, regions lacking cuticular lining, such as the shrimp’s excretory organ, “the antennal gland,” are major candidate entry portals [M. Corteel et al., Vet. Microbiol. 137, 209–216 (2009)]. The antennal gland, up until now morphologically underexplored, is studied using several imaging techniques. Using histology-based three-dimensional technology, we demonstrate that the antennal gland resembles a kidney, connected to a urinary bladder with a nephropore (exit opening) and a complex of diverticula, spread throughout the cephalothorax. Micromagnetic resonance imaging of live shrimp not only confirms the histology-based model, but also indicates that the filling of the diverticula is linked to the molting cycle and possibly involved therein. Based on function and complexity, we propose to rename the antennal gland as the “nephrocomplex.” By an intrabladder inoculation, we showed high susceptibility of this nephrocomplex to both white spot syndrome virus and Vibrio infection compared to peroral inoculation. An induced drop in salinity allowed the virus to enter the nephrocomplex in a natural way and caused a general infection followed by death; fluorescent beads were used to demonstrate that particles may indeed enter through the nephropore. These findings pave the way for oriented disease control in shrimp.}},
  author       = {{De Gryse, Gaëtan and Khuong, Thuong Van and Descamps, Benedicte and Van Den Broeck, Wim and Vanhove, Christian and Cornillie, Pieter and Sorgeloos, Patrick and Bossier, Peter and Nauwynck, Hans}},
  issn         = {{0027-8424}},
  journal      = {{PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA}},
  keywords     = {{Multidisciplinary,shrimp,antennal gland,morphology,spot syndrome virus,Vibrio,SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS,PENAEUS-MONODON,EXPERIMENTAL-INFECTION,BACULOVIRUS WSBV,ANTENNAL GLAND,TRANSMISSION,MORPHOLOGY,SALINITY,LOBSTERS,VANNAMEI}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{45}},
  pages        = {{28374--28383}},
  title        = {{The shrimp nephrocomplex serves as a major portal of pathogen entry and is involved in the molting process}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2013518117}},
  volume       = {{117}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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