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The blue mussel inside : 3D visualization and description of the vascular-related anatomy of Mytilus edulis to unravel hemolymph extraction

Mieke Eggermont (UGent) , Pieter Cornillie (UGent) , Manuel Dierick (UGent) , Dominique Adriaens (UGent) , Nancy Nevejan (UGent) , Peter Bossier (UGent) , Wim Van Den Broeck (UGent) , Patrick Sorgeloos (UGent) , Tom Defoirdt (UGent) and Annelies Declercq (UGent)
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Abstract
The blue mussel Mytilus edulis is an intensely studied bivalve in biomonitoring programs worldwide. The lack of detailed descriptions of hemolymph-withdrawal protocols, particularly with regard to the place from where hemolymph could be perfused from, raises questions regarding the exact composition of aspirated hemolymph and does not exclude the possibility of contamination with other body-fluids. This study demonstrates the use of high resolution X-ray computed tomography and histology combined with 3D-reconstruction using AMIRA-software to visualize some important vascular-related anatomic structures of Mytilus edulis. Based on these images, different hemolymph extraction sites used in bivalve research were visualized and described, leading to new insights into hemolymph collection. Results show that hemolymph withdrawn from the posterior adductor muscle could be extracted from small spaces and fissures between the muscle fibers that are connected to at least one hemolymph supplying artery, more specifically the left posterior gastro-intestinal artery. Furthermore, 3D-reconstructions indicate that puncturing hemolymph from the pericard, anterior aorta, atria and ventricle in a non-invasive way should be possible. Hemolymph withdrawal from the heart is less straightforward and more prone to contamination from the pallial cavity. This study resulted simultaneously in a detailed description and visualization of the vascular-related anatomy of Mytilus edulis.
Keywords
URINE FORMATION, MARINE MUSSEL, HOST-DEFENSE, HEMATOPOIESIS, HEMOCYTES, MOLLUSCA, OYSTERS, PEPTIDE, GROWTH, CELLS

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MLA
Eggermont, Mieke, et al. “The Blue Mussel inside : 3D Visualization and Description of the Vascular-Related Anatomy of Mytilus Edulis to Unravel Hemolymph Extraction.” SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, vol. 10, no. 1, 2020, doi:10.1038/s41598-020-62933-9.
APA
Eggermont, M., Cornillie, P., Dierick, M., Adriaens, D., Nevejan, N., Bossier, P., … Declercq, A. (2020). The blue mussel inside : 3D visualization and description of the vascular-related anatomy of Mytilus edulis to unravel hemolymph extraction. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 10(1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-62933-9
Chicago author-date
Eggermont, Mieke, Pieter Cornillie, Manuel Dierick, Dominique Adriaens, Nancy Nevejan, Peter Bossier, Wim Van Den Broeck, Patrick Sorgeloos, Tom Defoirdt, and Annelies Declercq. 2020. “The Blue Mussel inside : 3D Visualization and Description of the Vascular-Related Anatomy of Mytilus Edulis to Unravel Hemolymph Extraction.” SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 10 (1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-62933-9.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Eggermont, Mieke, Pieter Cornillie, Manuel Dierick, Dominique Adriaens, Nancy Nevejan, Peter Bossier, Wim Van Den Broeck, Patrick Sorgeloos, Tom Defoirdt, and Annelies Declercq. 2020. “The Blue Mussel inside : 3D Visualization and Description of the Vascular-Related Anatomy of Mytilus Edulis to Unravel Hemolymph Extraction.” SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 10 (1). doi:10.1038/s41598-020-62933-9.
Vancouver
1.
Eggermont M, Cornillie P, Dierick M, Adriaens D, Nevejan N, Bossier P, et al. The blue mussel inside : 3D visualization and description of the vascular-related anatomy of Mytilus edulis to unravel hemolymph extraction. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. 2020;10(1).
IEEE
[1]
M. Eggermont et al., “The blue mussel inside : 3D visualization and description of the vascular-related anatomy of Mytilus edulis to unravel hemolymph extraction,” SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, vol. 10, no. 1, 2020.
@article{8678695,
  abstract     = {{The blue mussel Mytilus edulis is an intensely studied bivalve in biomonitoring programs worldwide. The lack of detailed descriptions of hemolymph-withdrawal protocols, particularly with regard to the place from where hemolymph could be perfused from, raises questions regarding the exact composition of aspirated hemolymph and does not exclude the possibility of contamination with other body-fluids. This study demonstrates the use of high resolution X-ray computed tomography and histology combined with 3D-reconstruction using AMIRA-software to visualize some important vascular-related anatomic structures of Mytilus edulis. Based on these images, different hemolymph extraction sites used in bivalve research were visualized and described, leading to new insights into hemolymph collection. Results show that hemolymph withdrawn from the posterior adductor muscle could be extracted from small spaces and fissures between the muscle fibers that are connected to at least one hemolymph supplying artery, more specifically the left posterior gastro-intestinal artery. Furthermore, 3D-reconstructions indicate that puncturing hemolymph from the pericard, anterior aorta, atria and ventricle in a non-invasive way should be possible. Hemolymph withdrawal from the heart is less straightforward and more prone to contamination from the pallial cavity. This study resulted simultaneously in a detailed description and visualization of the vascular-related anatomy of Mytilus edulis.}},
  articleno    = {{6773}},
  author       = {{Eggermont, Mieke and Cornillie, Pieter and Dierick, Manuel and Adriaens, Dominique and Nevejan, Nancy and Bossier, Peter and Van Den Broeck, Wim and Sorgeloos, Patrick and Defoirdt, Tom and Declercq, Annelies}},
  issn         = {{2045-2322}},
  journal      = {{SCIENTIFIC REPORTS}},
  keywords     = {{URINE FORMATION,MARINE MUSSEL,HOST-DEFENSE,HEMATOPOIESIS,HEMOCYTES,MOLLUSCA,OYSTERS,PEPTIDE,GROWTH,CELLS}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{1}},
  pages        = {{16}},
  title        = {{The blue mussel inside : 3D visualization and description of the vascular-related anatomy of Mytilus edulis to unravel hemolymph extraction}},
  url          = {{http://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-62933-9}},
  volume       = {{10}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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