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Online turbulent flow extraction and column switching for the confirmatory analysis of stimulants in urine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

Laurie De Wilde (UGent) , Kris Roels (UGent) , Peter Van Eenoo (UGent) and Koen Deventer (UGent)
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Abstract
Stimulants are often used to treat attention deficit disorders and nasal congestion. As they can be misused and overdosed, the detection of stimulants is relevant in the toxicological field as well as in the doping control field. The effects of stimulants can indeed be beneficial for athletes. Therefore, their in-competition use is prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). As stimulants represent one of the most detected categories of prohibited substances, automation of methods to detect and confirm their presence is desirable. Previous work has shown the advantages of using turbulent flow online solid-phase extraction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (online SPE LC-MS-MS) for the detection and confirmation of diuretics and masking agents. Hence, a turbulent flow online SPE LC-MS-MS method, compliant with the WADA's identification criteria, was developed and validated for the detection and confirmation of 80 stimulants or metabolites with limits of identification varying between 10 (or possibly lower) and 100 ng/mL. As several metabolites are common metabolites for multiple administered stimulants, this means that with this method, misuse of well over 100 compounds can be detected. As the developed method uses the same columns and mobile phases as our turbulent flow online SPE LC-MS-MS method for the confirmation of diuretics and masking agents, there is no need to change the configuration of the instrument when switching between the diuretics method and the developed stimulants method.
Keywords
Toxicology, Analytical Chemistry, Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis, Chemical Health and Safety, Environmental Chemistry, SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION, DILUTE-AND-SHOOT, COMPREHENSIVE SCREENING METHOD, DOPING AGENTS, LC-MS/MS, SIMULTANEOUS QUANTIFICATION, QUALITATIVE DETECTION, DIRECT-INJECTION, MASKING AGENTS, DESIGNER DRUGS

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MLA
De Wilde, Laurie, et al. “Online Turbulent Flow Extraction and Column Switching for the Confirmatory Analysis of Stimulants in Urine by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.” JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL TOXICOLOGY, vol. 45, no. 7, 2021, pp. 666–78, doi:10.1093/jat/bkaa136.
APA
De Wilde, L., Roels, K., Van Eenoo, P., & Deventer, K. (2021). Online turbulent flow extraction and column switching for the confirmatory analysis of stimulants in urine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL TOXICOLOGY, 45(7), 666–678. https://doi.org/10.1093/jat/bkaa136
Chicago author-date
De Wilde, Laurie, Kris Roels, Peter Van Eenoo, and Koen Deventer. 2021. “Online Turbulent Flow Extraction and Column Switching for the Confirmatory Analysis of Stimulants in Urine by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.” JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL TOXICOLOGY 45 (7): 666–78. https://doi.org/10.1093/jat/bkaa136.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
De Wilde, Laurie, Kris Roels, Peter Van Eenoo, and Koen Deventer. 2021. “Online Turbulent Flow Extraction and Column Switching for the Confirmatory Analysis of Stimulants in Urine by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.” JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL TOXICOLOGY 45 (7): 666–678. doi:10.1093/jat/bkaa136.
Vancouver
1.
De Wilde L, Roels K, Van Eenoo P, Deventer K. Online turbulent flow extraction and column switching for the confirmatory analysis of stimulants in urine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL TOXICOLOGY. 2021;45(7):666–78.
IEEE
[1]
L. De Wilde, K. Roels, P. Van Eenoo, and K. Deventer, “Online turbulent flow extraction and column switching for the confirmatory analysis of stimulants in urine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry,” JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL TOXICOLOGY, vol. 45, no. 7, pp. 666–678, 2021.
@article{8678194,
  abstract     = {{Stimulants are often used to treat attention deficit disorders and nasal congestion. As they can be misused and overdosed, the detection of stimulants is relevant in the toxicological field as well as in the doping control field. The effects of stimulants can indeed be beneficial for athletes. Therefore, their in-competition use is prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). As stimulants represent one of the most detected categories of prohibited substances, automation of methods to detect and confirm their presence is desirable. Previous work has shown the advantages of using turbulent flow online solid-phase extraction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (online SPE LC-MS-MS) for the detection and confirmation of diuretics and masking agents. Hence, a turbulent flow online SPE LC-MS-MS method, compliant with the WADA's identification criteria, was developed and validated for the detection and confirmation of 80 stimulants or metabolites with limits of identification varying between 10 (or possibly lower) and 100 ng/mL. As several metabolites are common metabolites for multiple administered stimulants, this means that with this method, misuse of well over 100 compounds can be detected. As the developed method uses the same columns and mobile phases as our turbulent flow online SPE LC-MS-MS method for the confirmation of diuretics and masking agents, there is no need to change the configuration of the instrument when switching between the diuretics method and the developed stimulants method.}},
  author       = {{De Wilde, Laurie and Roels, Kris and Van Eenoo, Peter and Deventer, Koen}},
  issn         = {{0146-4760}},
  journal      = {{JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL TOXICOLOGY}},
  keywords     = {{Toxicology,Analytical Chemistry,Health,Toxicology and Mutagenesis,Chemical Health and Safety,Environmental Chemistry,SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION,DILUTE-AND-SHOOT,COMPREHENSIVE SCREENING METHOD,DOPING AGENTS,LC-MS/MS,SIMULTANEOUS QUANTIFICATION,QUALITATIVE DETECTION,DIRECT-INJECTION,MASKING AGENTS,DESIGNER DRUGS}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{7}},
  pages        = {{666--678}},
  title        = {{Online turbulent flow extraction and column switching for the confirmatory analysis of stimulants in urine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jat/bkaa136}},
  volume       = {{45}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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