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Can psychological interventions improve intergroup attitudes post terror attacks?

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Abstract
This research concurrently investigated the effectiveness of three established bias-reducing interventions (i.e., positive affirmation, secure attachment, and cognitive dissonance) in the wake of the Paris and Brussels terror attacks. Using frequentist and Bayesian analyses, Study 1 (N = 1,676), launched within days of the attacks, found that compared to a control condition, the interventions did not significantly improve intergroup attitudes. Instead, the data showed strong support of the null hypotheses that there were no intervention effects. Proximity to the attacks did not moderate the effect. Study 2 (N = 285) reexamined the effects of the three interventions 2.5 years after the attacks, generally replicating the pattern of findings in Study 1. Together, this research highlights the challenge of intergroup bias reduction following terror attacks. We conclude by discussing several recommendations for how psychological interventions could play a more impactful role in contexts of heightened conflict.
Keywords
Clinical Psychology, Social Psychology, terrorism, intergroup attitudes, self-affirmation, secure attachment, dissonance induction, SELF-AFFIRMATION, ATTACHMENT, PREJUDICE, SECURITY, RUMOR, REPLICATION, SCIENCE

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MLA
Van Assche, Jasper, et al. “Can Psychological Interventions Improve Intergroup Attitudes Post Terror Attacks?” SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PERSONALITY SCIENCE, vol. 11, no. 8, 2020, pp. 1101–09, doi:10.1177/1948550619896139.
APA
Van Assche, J., Noor, M., Dierckx, K., Saleem, M., Bouchat, P., de Guissme, L., … Chao, M. M. (2020). Can psychological interventions improve intergroup attitudes post terror attacks? SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PERSONALITY SCIENCE, 11(8), 1101–1109. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550619896139
Chicago author-date
Van Assche, Jasper, Masi Noor, Kim Dierckx, Muniba Saleem, Pierre Bouchat, Laura de Guissme, Dries Bostyn, Mark Carew, Andreea Ernst-Vintila, and Melody M. Chao. 2020. “Can Psychological Interventions Improve Intergroup Attitudes Post Terror Attacks?” SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PERSONALITY SCIENCE 11 (8): 1101–9. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550619896139.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Van Assche, Jasper, Masi Noor, Kim Dierckx, Muniba Saleem, Pierre Bouchat, Laura de Guissme, Dries Bostyn, Mark Carew, Andreea Ernst-Vintila, and Melody M. Chao. 2020. “Can Psychological Interventions Improve Intergroup Attitudes Post Terror Attacks?” SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PERSONALITY SCIENCE 11 (8): 1101–1109. doi:10.1177/1948550619896139.
Vancouver
1.
Van Assche J, Noor M, Dierckx K, Saleem M, Bouchat P, de Guissme L, et al. Can psychological interventions improve intergroup attitudes post terror attacks? SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PERSONALITY SCIENCE. 2020;11(8):1101–9.
IEEE
[1]
J. Van Assche et al., “Can psychological interventions improve intergroup attitudes post terror attacks?,” SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PERSONALITY SCIENCE, vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 1101–1109, 2020.
@article{8678055,
  abstract     = {{This research concurrently investigated the effectiveness of three established bias-reducing interventions (i.e., positive affirmation, secure attachment, and cognitive dissonance) in the wake of the Paris and Brussels terror attacks. Using frequentist and Bayesian analyses, Study 1 (N = 1,676), launched within days of the attacks, found that compared to a control condition, the interventions did not significantly improve intergroup attitudes. Instead, the data showed strong support of the null hypotheses that there were no intervention effects. Proximity to the attacks did not moderate the effect. Study 2 (N = 285) reexamined the effects of the three interventions 2.5 years after the attacks, generally replicating the pattern of findings in Study 1. Together, this research highlights the challenge of intergroup bias reduction following terror attacks. We conclude by discussing several recommendations for how psychological interventions could play a more impactful role in contexts of heightened conflict.}},
  author       = {{Van Assche, Jasper and Noor, Masi and Dierckx, Kim and Saleem, Muniba and Bouchat, Pierre and de Guissme, Laura and Bostyn, Dries and Carew, Mark and Ernst-Vintila, Andreea and Chao, Melody M.}},
  issn         = {{1948-5506}},
  journal      = {{SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PERSONALITY SCIENCE}},
  keywords     = {{Clinical Psychology,Social Psychology,terrorism,intergroup attitudes,self-affirmation,secure attachment,dissonance induction,SELF-AFFIRMATION,ATTACHMENT,PREJUDICE,SECURITY,RUMOR,REPLICATION,SCIENCE}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{8}},
  pages        = {{1101--1109}},
  title        = {{Can psychological interventions improve intergroup attitudes post terror attacks?}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1948550619896139}},
  volume       = {{11}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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