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Depression in women and men, cumulative disadvantage and gender inequality in 29 European countries

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Abstract
Macro-sociological theories stress the contribution of gender inequality to this gender gap in depression, while cumulative advantage/disadvantage theory (CAD) reminds us that mental health inequalities accumulate over the life course. We explore the complementarity of both perspectives in a variety of European countries using data of the European Social Survey (2006 2012, 2014, N of countries = 29; N of men = 53,680 and N of women = 63,103) and using an 8 -item version of the CES-D. Results confirm that the relevance of gender stratification for the mental health of women and men in Europe depends on age. The gender gap is nearly absent amongst adults in their twenties in the most gender equal countries, while an impressive gender gap is present amongst older adults in gender unequal countries, in accordance with CAD theory. These effects occur on top of the mental health consequences of taking up work and family roles at various life stages. The convergence of the results predicted by gender stratification and cumulative disadvantage theories strengthen the case for the link between gender, disadvantage and depression.
Keywords
Depression, Mental health, Gender, Gender inequality, Cumulative disadvantage, Comparative research, Europe, SELF-RATED HEALTH, LIFE-COURSE, ECONOMIC HARDSHIP, MAJOR DEPRESSION, AGE, EDUCATION, DISORDERS, ADVERSITY, GAP, TRAJECTORIES

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MLA
Bracke, Piet, et al. “Depression in Women and Men, Cumulative Disadvantage and Gender Inequality in 29 European Countries.” SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE, vol. 267, 2020, doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113354.
APA
Bracke, P., Delaruelle, K., Dereuddre, R., & Van de Velde, S. (2020). Depression in women and men, cumulative disadvantage and gender inequality in 29 European countries. SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE, 267. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113354
Chicago author-date
Bracke, Piet, Katrijn Delaruelle, Rozemarijn Dereuddre, and Sarah Van de Velde. 2020. “Depression in Women and Men, Cumulative Disadvantage and Gender Inequality in 29 European Countries.” SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE 267. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113354.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Bracke, Piet, Katrijn Delaruelle, Rozemarijn Dereuddre, and Sarah Van de Velde. 2020. “Depression in Women and Men, Cumulative Disadvantage and Gender Inequality in 29 European Countries.” SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE 267. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113354.
Vancouver
1.
Bracke P, Delaruelle K, Dereuddre R, Van de Velde S. Depression in women and men, cumulative disadvantage and gender inequality in 29 European countries. SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE. 2020;267.
IEEE
[1]
P. Bracke, K. Delaruelle, R. Dereuddre, and S. Van de Velde, “Depression in women and men, cumulative disadvantage and gender inequality in 29 European countries,” SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE, vol. 267, 2020.
@article{8677337,
  abstract     = {{Macro-sociological theories stress the contribution of gender inequality to this gender gap in depression, while cumulative advantage/disadvantage theory (CAD) reminds us that mental health inequalities accumulate over the life course. We explore the complementarity of both perspectives in a variety of European countries using data of the European Social Survey (2006 2012, 2014, N of countries = 29; N of men = 53,680 and N of women = 63,103) and using an 8 -item version of the CES-D. Results confirm that the relevance of gender stratification for the mental health of women and men in Europe depends on age. The gender gap is nearly absent amongst adults in their twenties in the most gender equal countries, while an impressive gender gap is present amongst older adults in gender unequal countries, in accordance with CAD theory. These effects occur on top of the mental health consequences of taking up work and family roles at various life stages. The convergence of the results predicted by gender stratification and cumulative disadvantage theories strengthen the case for the link between gender, disadvantage and depression.}},
  articleno    = {{113354}},
  author       = {{Bracke, Piet and Delaruelle, Katrijn and Dereuddre, Rozemarijn and Van de Velde, Sarah}},
  issn         = {{0277-9536}},
  journal      = {{SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE}},
  keywords     = {{Depression,Mental health,Gender,Gender inequality,Cumulative disadvantage,Comparative research,Europe,SELF-RATED HEALTH,LIFE-COURSE,ECONOMIC HARDSHIP,MAJOR DEPRESSION,AGE,EDUCATION,DISORDERS,ADVERSITY,GAP,TRAJECTORIES}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{10}},
  title        = {{Depression in women and men, cumulative disadvantage and gender inequality in 29 European countries}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113354}},
  volume       = {{267}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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