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Quenching as a contest between galaxy halos and their central black holes

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Abstract
Existing models of galaxy formation have not yet explained striking correlations between structure and star formation activity in galaxies, notably the sloped and moving boundaries that divide star-forming from quenched galaxies in key structural diagrams. This paper uses these and other relations to "reverse engineer" the quenching process for central galaxies. The basic idea is that star-forming galaxies with larger radii (at a given stellar mass) have lower black hole (BH) masses due to lower central densities. Galaxies cross into the green valley when the cumulative effective energy radiated by their BH equals ~4× their halo gas-binding energy. Because larger-radii galaxies have smaller BHs, one finds that they must evolve to higher stellar masses in order to meet this halo energy criterion, which explains the sloping boundaries. A possible cause of radii differences among star-forming galaxies is halo concentration. The evolutionary tracks of star-forming galaxies are nearly parallel to the green-valley boundaries, and it is mainly the sideways motions of these boundaries with cosmic time that cause galaxies to quench. BH scaling laws for star-forming, quenched, and green-valley galaxies are different, and most BH mass growth takes place in the green valley. Implications include the radii of star-forming galaxies are an important second parameter in shaping their BHs; BHs are connected to their halos but in different ways for star-forming, quenched, and green-valley galaxies; and the same BH–halo quenching mechanism has been in place since z ~ 3. We conclude with a discussion of BH–galaxy coevolution and the origin and interpretation of BH scaling laws.
Keywords
Space and Planetary Science, Astronomy and Astrophysics, Galaxy evolution, Galaxy quenching, Galaxy structure, Galaxy physics, Star formation, Supermassive black holes, TAR-FORMATION HISTORY, DARK-MATTER HALOES, CATALOGS SOURCE IDENTIFICATION, MAPPING STELLAR CONTENT, PHASE-3 BILLION YEARS, LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURE, BH-SIGMA RELATION, MASSIVE GALAXIES, COSMIC EVOLUTION, ELLIPTIC GALAXIES

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MLA
Chen, Zhu, et al. “Quenching as a Contest between Galaxy Halos and Their Central Black Holes.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, vol. 897, no. 1, 2020, doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab9633.
APA
Chen, Z., Faber, S. M., Koo, D. C., Somerville, R. S., Primack, J. R., Dekel, A., … Yesuf, H. M. (2020). Quenching as a contest between galaxy halos and their central black holes. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 897(1). https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab9633
Chicago author-date
Chen, Zhu, S. M. Faber, David C. Koo, Rachel S. Somerville, Joel R. Primack, Avishai Dekel, Aldo Rodríguez-Puebla, et al. 2020. “Quenching as a Contest between Galaxy Halos and Their Central Black Holes.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 897 (1). https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab9633.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Chen, Zhu, S. M. Faber, David C. Koo, Rachel S. Somerville, Joel R. Primack, Avishai Dekel, Aldo Rodríguez-Puebla, Yicheng Guo, Guillermo Barro, Dale D. Kocevski, Arjen van der Wel, Joanna Woo, Eric F. Bell, Jerome J. Fang, Henry C. Ferguson, Mauro Giavalisco, Marc Huertas-Company, Fangzhou Jiang, Susan Kassin, Lin Lin, F. S. Liu, Yifei Luo, Zhijian Luo, Camilla Pacifici, Viraj Pandya, Samir Salim, Chenggang Shu, Sandro Tacchella, Bryan A. Terrazas, and Hassen M. Yesuf. 2020. “Quenching as a Contest between Galaxy Halos and Their Central Black Holes.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 897 (1). doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab9633.
Vancouver
1.
Chen Z, Faber SM, Koo DC, Somerville RS, Primack JR, Dekel A, et al. Quenching as a contest between galaxy halos and their central black holes. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL. 2020;897(1).
IEEE
[1]
Z. Chen et al., “Quenching as a contest between galaxy halos and their central black holes,” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, vol. 897, no. 1, 2020.
@article{8677240,
  abstract     = {{Existing models of galaxy formation have not yet explained striking correlations between structure and star formation activity in galaxies, notably the sloped and moving boundaries that divide star-forming from quenched galaxies in key structural diagrams. This paper uses these and other relations to "reverse engineer" the quenching process for central galaxies. The basic idea is that star-forming galaxies with larger radii (at a given stellar mass) have lower black hole (BH) masses due to lower central densities. Galaxies cross into the green valley when the cumulative effective energy radiated by their BH equals ~4× their halo gas-binding energy. Because larger-radii galaxies have smaller BHs, one finds that they must evolve to higher stellar masses in order to meet this halo energy criterion, which explains the sloping boundaries. A possible cause of radii differences among star-forming galaxies is halo concentration. The evolutionary tracks of star-forming galaxies are nearly parallel to the green-valley boundaries, and it is mainly the sideways motions of these boundaries with cosmic time that cause galaxies to quench. BH scaling laws for star-forming, quenched, and green-valley galaxies are different, and most BH mass growth takes place in the green valley. Implications include the radii of star-forming galaxies are an important second parameter in shaping their BHs; BHs are connected to their halos but in different ways for star-forming, quenched, and green-valley galaxies; and the same BH–halo quenching mechanism has been in place since z ~ 3. We conclude with a discussion of BH–galaxy coevolution and the origin and interpretation of BH scaling laws.}},
  articleno    = {{102}},
  author       = {{Chen, Zhu and Faber, S. M. and Koo, David C. and Somerville, Rachel S. and Primack, Joel R. and Dekel, Avishai and Rodríguez-Puebla, Aldo and Guo, Yicheng and Barro, Guillermo and Kocevski, Dale D. and van der Wel, Arjen and Woo, Joanna and Bell, Eric F. and Fang, Jerome J. and Ferguson, Henry C. and Giavalisco, Mauro and Huertas-Company, Marc and Jiang, Fangzhou and Kassin, Susan and Lin, Lin and Liu, F. S. and Luo, Yifei and Luo, Zhijian and Pacifici, Camilla and Pandya, Viraj and Salim, Samir and Shu, Chenggang and Tacchella, Sandro and Terrazas, Bryan A. and Yesuf, Hassen M.}},
  issn         = {{0004-637X}},
  journal      = {{ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL}},
  keywords     = {{Space and Planetary Science,Astronomy and Astrophysics,Galaxy evolution,Galaxy quenching,Galaxy structure,Galaxy physics,Star formation,Supermassive black holes,TAR-FORMATION HISTORY,DARK-MATTER HALOES,CATALOGS SOURCE IDENTIFICATION,MAPPING STELLAR CONTENT,PHASE-3 BILLION YEARS,LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURE,BH-SIGMA RELATION,MASSIVE GALAXIES,COSMIC EVOLUTION,ELLIPTIC GALAXIES}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{1}},
  pages        = {{46}},
  title        = {{Quenching as a contest between galaxy halos and their central black holes}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab9633}},
  volume       = {{897}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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