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Examining non-linear built environment effects on elderly’s walking : a random forest approach

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Abstract
Previous studies often assume a pre-specified relationship between walking and the built environment. Using data from 702 older adults in Nanjing (China), this study employs a random forest method to scrutinise the refined associations between the built environment and walking time among older adults, while controlling for socio-demographics. Results show that all the analysed built environment attributes tend to impose salient non-linear and threshold effects on walking time. For example, population density and land use mix only increase older adults’ walking at certain levels. Ultra-densely populated areas and excessively mixed land uses may even lead to a decline in walking. Built environment interventions would consequently only be effective in certain ranges. By quantifying the relative importance of built environment attributes, we further indicate the hierarchy of intervention priorities. These results offer nuanced and appropriate guidance for building age-friendly neighbourhoods.
Keywords
General Environmental Science, Transportation, Built environment, Land use, Walking, Non-linear effect, Random forest, Active ageing, BOOSTING DECISION TREES, OLDER-ADULTS, ACTIVE TRAVEL, NEIGHBORHOOD DESIGN, PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY, URBAN FORM, TRANSPORT, BEHAVIOR, MODE, ATTRIBUTES

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MLA
Cheng, Long, et al. “Examining Non-Linear Built Environment Effects on Elderly’s Walking : A Random Forest Approach.” TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH PART D-TRANSPORT AND ENVIRONMENT, vol. 88, 2020, doi:10.1016/j.trd.2020.102552.
APA
Cheng, L., De Vos, J., Zhao, P., Yang, M., & Witlox, F. (2020). Examining non-linear built environment effects on elderly’s walking : a random forest approach. TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH PART D-TRANSPORT AND ENVIRONMENT, 88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2020.102552
Chicago author-date
Cheng, Long, Jonas De Vos, Pengjun Zhao, Min Yang, and Frank Witlox. 2020. “Examining Non-Linear Built Environment Effects on Elderly’s Walking : A Random Forest Approach.” TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH PART D-TRANSPORT AND ENVIRONMENT 88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2020.102552.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Cheng, Long, Jonas De Vos, Pengjun Zhao, Min Yang, and Frank Witlox. 2020. “Examining Non-Linear Built Environment Effects on Elderly’s Walking : A Random Forest Approach.” TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH PART D-TRANSPORT AND ENVIRONMENT 88. doi:10.1016/j.trd.2020.102552.
Vancouver
1.
Cheng L, De Vos J, Zhao P, Yang M, Witlox F. Examining non-linear built environment effects on elderly’s walking : a random forest approach. TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH PART D-TRANSPORT AND ENVIRONMENT. 2020;88.
IEEE
[1]
L. Cheng, J. De Vos, P. Zhao, M. Yang, and F. Witlox, “Examining non-linear built environment effects on elderly’s walking : a random forest approach,” TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH PART D-TRANSPORT AND ENVIRONMENT, vol. 88, 2020.
@article{8676334,
  abstract     = {Previous studies often assume a pre-specified relationship between walking and the built environment. Using data from 702 older adults in Nanjing (China), this study employs a random forest method to scrutinise the refined associations between the built environment and walking time among older adults, while controlling for socio-demographics. Results show that all the analysed built environment attributes tend to impose salient non-linear and threshold effects on walking time. For example, population density and land use mix only increase older adults’ walking at certain levels. Ultra-densely populated areas and excessively mixed land uses may even lead to a decline in walking. Built environment interventions would consequently only be effective in certain ranges. By quantifying the relative importance of built environment attributes, we further indicate the hierarchy of intervention priorities. These results offer nuanced and appropriate guidance for building age-friendly neighbourhoods.},
  articleno    = {102552},
  author       = {Cheng, Long and De Vos, Jonas and Zhao, Pengjun and Yang, Min and Witlox, Frank},
  issn         = {1361-9209},
  journal      = {TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH PART D-TRANSPORT AND ENVIRONMENT},
  keywords     = {General Environmental Science,Transportation,Built environment,Land use,Walking,Non-linear effect,Random forest,Active ageing,BOOSTING DECISION TREES,OLDER-ADULTS,ACTIVE TRAVEL,NEIGHBORHOOD DESIGN,PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY,URBAN FORM,TRANSPORT,BEHAVIOR,MODE,ATTRIBUTES},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {11},
  title        = {Examining non-linear built environment effects on elderly’s walking : a random forest approach},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2020.102552},
  volume       = {88},
  year         = {2020},
}

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