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Phylogenomic analysis of Mycoplasma bovis from Belgian veal, dairy and beef herds

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Abstract
M. bovis is one of the leading causes of respiratory disease and antimicrobial use in cattle. The pathogen is widespread in different cattle industries worldwide, but highest prevalence is found in the veal industry. Knowledge on M. bovis strain distribution over the dairy, beef and veal industries is crucial for the design of effective control and prevention programs, but currently undocumented. Therefore, the present study evaluated the molecular epidemiology and genetic relatedness of M. bovis isolates obtained from Belgian beef, dairy and veal farms, and how these relate to M. bovis strains obtained worldwide. Full genomes of one hundred Belgian M. bovis isolates collected over a 5-year period (2014–2019), obtained from 27 dairy, 38 beef and 29 veal farms, were sequenced by long-read nanopore sequencing. Consensus sequences were used to generate a phylogenetic tree in order to associate genetic clusters with cattle sector, geographical area and year of isolation. The phylogenetic analysis of the Belgian M. bovis isolates resulted in 5 major clusters and 1 outlier. No sector-specific M. bovis clustering was identified. On a world scale, Belgian isolates clustered with Israeli, European and American strains. Different M. bovis clusters circulated for at least 1.5 consecutive years throughout the country, affecting all observed industries. Therefore, the high prevalence in the veal industry is more likely the consequence of frequent purchase from the dairy and beef industry, than that a reservoir of veal specific strains on farm would exist. These results emphasize the importance of biosecurity in M. bovis control and prevention.
Keywords
General Veterinary, cattle, long-read nanopore sequencing, phylogenetic analysis, SNP analysis, whole genome, MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGIC ANALYSIS, MYCOPLASMA-BOVIS, RESPIRATORY-DISEASE, MASTITIS, OUTBREAKS, INVESTIGATE, INFECTIONS, STRAINS, CATTLE

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MLA
Bokma, Jade, et al. “Phylogenomic Analysis of Mycoplasma Bovis from Belgian Veal, Dairy and Beef Herds.” VETERINARY RESEARCH, vol. 51, no. 1, 2020, doi:10.1186/s13567-020-00848-z.
APA
Bokma, J., Vereecke, N., De Bleecker, K., Callens, J., Ribbens, S., Nauwynck, H., … Pardon, B. (2020). Phylogenomic analysis of Mycoplasma bovis from Belgian veal, dairy and beef herds. VETERINARY RESEARCH, 51(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13567-020-00848-z
Chicago author-date
Bokma, Jade, Nick Vereecke, Koen De Bleecker, Jozefien Callens, Stefaan Ribbens, Hans Nauwynck, Freddy Haesebrouck, Sebastiaan Theuns, Filip Boyen, and Bart Pardon. 2020. “Phylogenomic Analysis of Mycoplasma Bovis from Belgian Veal, Dairy and Beef Herds.” VETERINARY RESEARCH 51 (1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13567-020-00848-z.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Bokma, Jade, Nick Vereecke, Koen De Bleecker, Jozefien Callens, Stefaan Ribbens, Hans Nauwynck, Freddy Haesebrouck, Sebastiaan Theuns, Filip Boyen, and Bart Pardon. 2020. “Phylogenomic Analysis of Mycoplasma Bovis from Belgian Veal, Dairy and Beef Herds.” VETERINARY RESEARCH 51 (1). doi:10.1186/s13567-020-00848-z.
Vancouver
1.
Bokma J, Vereecke N, De Bleecker K, Callens J, Ribbens S, Nauwynck H, et al. Phylogenomic analysis of Mycoplasma bovis from Belgian veal, dairy and beef herds. VETERINARY RESEARCH. 2020;51(1).
IEEE
[1]
J. Bokma et al., “Phylogenomic analysis of Mycoplasma bovis from Belgian veal, dairy and beef herds,” VETERINARY RESEARCH, vol. 51, no. 1, 2020.
@article{8675576,
  abstract     = {M. bovis is one of the leading causes of respiratory disease and antimicrobial use in cattle. The pathogen is widespread in different cattle industries worldwide, but highest prevalence is found in the veal industry. Knowledge on M. bovis strain distribution over the dairy, beef and veal industries is crucial for the design of effective control and prevention programs, but currently undocumented. Therefore, the present study evaluated the molecular epidemiology and genetic relatedness of M. bovis isolates obtained from Belgian beef, dairy and veal farms, and how these relate to M. bovis strains obtained worldwide. Full genomes of one hundred Belgian M. bovis isolates collected over a 5-year period (2014–2019), obtained from 27 dairy, 38 beef and 29 veal farms, were sequenced by long-read nanopore sequencing. Consensus sequences were used to generate a phylogenetic tree in order to associate genetic clusters with cattle sector, geographical area and year of isolation. The phylogenetic analysis of the Belgian M. bovis isolates resulted in 5 major clusters and 1 outlier. No sector-specific M. bovis clustering was identified. On a world scale, Belgian isolates clustered with Israeli, European and American strains. Different M. bovis clusters circulated for at least 1.5 consecutive years throughout the country, affecting all observed industries. Therefore, the high prevalence in the veal industry is more likely the consequence of frequent purchase from the dairy and beef industry, than that a reservoir of veal specific strains on farm would exist. These results emphasize the importance of biosecurity in M. bovis control and prevention.},
  articleno    = {121},
  author       = {Bokma, Jade and Vereecke, Nick and De Bleecker, Koen and Callens, Jozefien and Ribbens, Stefaan and Nauwynck, Hans and Haesebrouck, Freddy and Theuns, Sebastiaan and Boyen, Filip and Pardon, Bart},
  issn         = {0928-4249},
  journal      = {VETERINARY RESEARCH},
  keywords     = {General Veterinary,cattle,long-read nanopore sequencing,phylogenetic analysis,SNP analysis,whole genome,MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGIC ANALYSIS,MYCOPLASMA-BOVIS,RESPIRATORY-DISEASE,MASTITIS,OUTBREAKS,INVESTIGATE,INFECTIONS,STRAINS,CATTLE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {10},
  title        = {Phylogenomic analysis of Mycoplasma bovis from Belgian veal, dairy and beef herds},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13567-020-00848-z},
  volume       = {51},
  year         = {2020},
}

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