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A comparative study of parasites in three latrines from Medieval and Renaissance Brussels, Belgium (14th-17th centuries)

(2020) PARASITOLOGY. 147(13). p.1443-1451
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Abstract
The aim of this study is to determine the species of parasite that infected the population of Brussels during the Medieval and Renaissance periods, and determine if there was notable variation between different households within the city. We compared multiple sediment layers from cesspits beneath three different latrines dating from the 14th–17th centuries. Helminths and protozoa were detected using microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We identified Ascaris sp., Capillaria sp., Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Entamoeba histolytica, Fasciola hepatica, Giardia duodenalis, Taenia sp. and Trichuris sp. in Medieval samples, and continuing presence of Ascaris sp., D. dendriticum, F. hepatica, G. duodenalis and Trichuris sp. into the Renaissance. While some variation existed between households, there was a broadly consistent pattern with the domination of species spread by fecal contamination of food and drink (whipworm, roundworm and protozoa that cause dysentery). These data allow us to explore diet and hygiene, together with routes for the spread of fecal–oral parasites. Key factors explaining our findings are manuring practices with human excrement in market gardens, and flooding of the polluted River Senne during the 14th–17th centuries.
Keywords
Animal Science and Zoology, Parasitology, Infectious Diseases

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MLA
Graff, Anna, et al. “A Comparative Study of Parasites in Three Latrines from Medieval and Renaissance Brussels, Belgium (14th-17th Centuries).” PARASITOLOGY, vol. 147, no. 13, 2020, pp. 1443–51, doi:10.1017/s0031182020001298.
APA
Graff, A., Bennion-Pedley, E., Jones, A. K., Ledger, M. L., Deforce, K., Degraeve, A., … Mitchell, P. D. (2020). A comparative study of parasites in three latrines from Medieval and Renaissance Brussels, Belgium (14th-17th centuries). PARASITOLOGY, 147(13), 1443–1451. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0031182020001298
Chicago author-date
Graff, Anna, Emma Bennion-Pedley, Ariadin K. Jones, Marissa L. Ledger, Koen Deforce, Ann Degraeve, Sylvie Byl, and Piers D. Mitchell. 2020. “A Comparative Study of Parasites in Three Latrines from Medieval and Renaissance Brussels, Belgium (14th-17th Centuries).” PARASITOLOGY 147 (13): 1443–51. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0031182020001298.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Graff, Anna, Emma Bennion-Pedley, Ariadin K. Jones, Marissa L. Ledger, Koen Deforce, Ann Degraeve, Sylvie Byl, and Piers D. Mitchell. 2020. “A Comparative Study of Parasites in Three Latrines from Medieval and Renaissance Brussels, Belgium (14th-17th Centuries).” PARASITOLOGY 147 (13): 1443–1451. doi:10.1017/s0031182020001298.
Vancouver
1.
Graff A, Bennion-Pedley E, Jones AK, Ledger ML, Deforce K, Degraeve A, et al. A comparative study of parasites in three latrines from Medieval and Renaissance Brussels, Belgium (14th-17th centuries). PARASITOLOGY. 2020;147(13):1443–51.
IEEE
[1]
A. Graff et al., “A comparative study of parasites in three latrines from Medieval and Renaissance Brussels, Belgium (14th-17th centuries),” PARASITOLOGY, vol. 147, no. 13, pp. 1443–1451, 2020.
@article{8673878,
  abstract     = {{The aim of this study is to determine the species of parasite that infected the population of Brussels during the Medieval and Renaissance periods, and determine if there was notable variation between different households within the city. We compared multiple sediment layers from cesspits beneath three different latrines dating from the 14th–17th centuries. Helminths and protozoa were detected using microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We identified Ascaris sp., Capillaria sp., Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Entamoeba histolytica, Fasciola hepatica, Giardia duodenalis, Taenia sp. and Trichuris sp. in Medieval samples, and continuing presence of Ascaris sp., D. dendriticum, F. hepatica, G. duodenalis and Trichuris sp. into the Renaissance. While some variation existed between households, there was a broadly consistent pattern with the domination of species spread by fecal contamination of food and drink (whipworm, roundworm and protozoa that cause dysentery). These data allow us to explore diet and hygiene, together with routes for the spread of fecal–oral parasites. Key factors explaining our findings are manuring practices with human excrement in market gardens, and flooding of the polluted River Senne during the 14th–17th centuries.}},
  author       = {{Graff, Anna and Bennion-Pedley, Emma and Jones, Ariadin K. and Ledger, Marissa L. and Deforce, Koen and Degraeve, Ann and Byl, Sylvie and Mitchell, Piers D.}},
  issn         = {{0031-1820}},
  journal      = {{PARASITOLOGY}},
  keywords     = {{Animal Science and Zoology,Parasitology,Infectious Diseases}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{13}},
  pages        = {{1443--1451}},
  title        = {{A comparative study of parasites in three latrines from Medieval and Renaissance Brussels, Belgium (14th-17th centuries)}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0031182020001298}},
  volume       = {{147}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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