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Inequalities in the commuting burden : institutional constraints and job-housing relationships in Tianjin, China

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Abstract
Encouraging transport equality is vital in order to create a liveable city. However, the burden of commuting has become a key concern in urban areas, particularly in developing countries. Inequalities in the commuting burden are accompanied by inequalities in housing and employment, because these institutions have a significant impact on individuals' choices of accommodation and jobs, thus shaping commuting behaviour and causing imbalances in job-housing relationships. Therefore, this paper aims to analyse the role of employment and housing system constraints in the unequal commuting burden by using Tianjin as a case study. The results of the study show that the effects of institutional factors, such as Hukou and the Danwei system, help to explain imbalances in the job-housing relationship and the unequal commuting burden. Some commuters are employed by Danweis or have Tianjin Hukou, and can, therefore, live in Danwei housing, which means that Danweis provide effective solutions for some people in terms of their accommodation, enabling them to significantly decrease the time they spend commuting. Moreover, our study provides new evidence that institutional barriers constrain the job-housing balance in the case of high-skilled immigrants, while local residents and low-skilled immigrants can avoid institutional barriers by returning to Danwei housing and choosing to live in informal housing. In terms of suggesting measures for improving commuting inequalities, commuters generally wanted to eliminate the housing benefits resulting from the legacy of the Danwei system and for equal housing subsidies to be implemented. At the same time, they appealed for improvements to be made in terms of housing benefits, the quality of public transport and mixed housing-workplace planning. This study finds that institutional discrimination causes social inequalities in relation to the commuting burden, which could continue to worsen unless the influence of institutional factors is eliminated. The findings could be used to assist planners and decision makers in developing effective strategies to promote sustainable urban development.
Keywords
Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management, Management Science and Operations Research, Strategy and Management, Business and International Management, General Decision Sciences, Economics, Econometrics and Finance (miscellaneous), Transportation, Transport inequality, Transport policy and governance, Institutional constraints, Commuting burden, Job-housing relationship, Tianjin

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MLA
Liu, Chen, et al. “Inequalities in the Commuting Burden : Institutional Constraints and Job-Housing Relationships in Tianjin, China.” RESEARCH IN TRANSPORTATION BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT, 2020, doi:10.1016/j.rtbm.2020.100545.
APA
Liu, C., Cao, M., Yang, T., Ma, L., Wu, M., Cheng, L., & Ye, R. (2020). Inequalities in the commuting burden : institutional constraints and job-housing relationships in Tianjin, China. RESEARCH IN TRANSPORTATION BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rtbm.2020.100545
Chicago author-date
Liu, Chen, Mengqiu Cao, Tianren Yang, Liang Ma, Meiling Wu, Long Cheng, and Runing Ye. 2020. “Inequalities in the Commuting Burden : Institutional Constraints and Job-Housing Relationships in Tianjin, China.” RESEARCH IN TRANSPORTATION BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rtbm.2020.100545.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Liu, Chen, Mengqiu Cao, Tianren Yang, Liang Ma, Meiling Wu, Long Cheng, and Runing Ye. 2020. “Inequalities in the Commuting Burden : Institutional Constraints and Job-Housing Relationships in Tianjin, China.” RESEARCH IN TRANSPORTATION BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT. doi:10.1016/j.rtbm.2020.100545.
Vancouver
1.
Liu C, Cao M, Yang T, Ma L, Wu M, Cheng L, et al. Inequalities in the commuting burden : institutional constraints and job-housing relationships in Tianjin, China. RESEARCH IN TRANSPORTATION BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT. 2020;
IEEE
[1]
C. Liu et al., “Inequalities in the commuting burden : institutional constraints and job-housing relationships in Tianjin, China,” RESEARCH IN TRANSPORTATION BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT, 2020.
@article{8673420,
  abstract     = {Encouraging transport equality is vital in order to create a liveable city. However, the burden of commuting has become a key concern in urban areas, particularly in developing countries. Inequalities in the commuting burden are accompanied by inequalities in housing and employment, because these institutions have a significant impact on individuals' choices of accommodation and jobs, thus shaping commuting behaviour and causing imbalances in job-housing relationships. Therefore, this paper aims to analyse the role of employment and housing system constraints in the unequal commuting burden by using Tianjin as a case study. The results of the study show that the effects of institutional factors, such as Hukou and the Danwei system, help to explain imbalances in the job-housing relationship and the unequal commuting burden. Some commuters are employed by Danweis or have Tianjin Hukou, and can, therefore, live in Danwei housing, which means that Danweis provide effective solutions for some people in terms of their accommodation, enabling them to significantly decrease the time they spend commuting. Moreover, our study provides new evidence that institutional barriers constrain the job-housing balance in the case of high-skilled immigrants, while local residents and low-skilled immigrants can avoid institutional barriers by returning to Danwei housing and choosing to live in informal housing. In terms of suggesting measures for improving commuting inequalities, commuters generally wanted to eliminate the housing benefits resulting from the legacy of the Danwei system and for equal housing subsidies to be implemented. At the same time, they appealed for improvements to be made in terms of housing benefits, the quality of public transport and mixed housing-workplace planning. This study finds that institutional discrimination causes social inequalities in relation to the commuting burden, which could continue to worsen unless the influence of institutional factors is eliminated. The findings could be used to assist planners and decision makers in developing effective strategies to promote sustainable urban development.},
  articleno    = {100545},
  author       = {Liu, Chen and Cao, Mengqiu and Yang, Tianren and Ma, Liang and Wu, Meiling and Cheng, Long and Ye, Runing},
  issn         = {2210-5395},
  journal      = {RESEARCH IN TRANSPORTATION BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT},
  keywords     = {Tourism,Leisure and Hospitality Management,Management Science and Operations Research,Strategy and Management,Business and International Management,General Decision Sciences,Economics,Econometrics and Finance (miscellaneous),Transportation,Transport inequality,Transport policy and governance,Institutional constraints,Commuting burden,Job-housing relationship,Tianjin},
  language     = {eng},
  title        = {Inequalities in the commuting burden : institutional constraints and job-housing relationships in Tianjin, China},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rtbm.2020.100545},
  year         = {2020},
}

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