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Pesticides residues in tobacco smoke : risk assessment study

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Abstract
Pesticides are not only used on food but also on non-food crops, such as tobacco, to control a range of unwanted animal, plant, and microbial, fungal pests. The residue levels in tobacco leaves are expected to decline up to harvest, during drying, and when the leaves are further processed. Additional pesticides may also be applied to the finished product and residue levels may remain present even when the tobacco is burned. Human exposure to pesticide residues on tobacco occurs when residues remaining in cigarette smoke are inhaled. Based on this assumption, the objectives of this research were (i) to determine the level of pesticides residues in harvested tobacco leaves and (ii) to assess the risk of human exposure to these residues in tobacco smoke. Pesticide residues were detected in all analysed tobacco samples. These detected residues represent ten different active ingredients (AI), three of these AIs (thiodicarb, alachlor, and endosulfan) are no longer allowed in Europe. A 54.7% of these residues were quantifiable. Furthermore, it was found that with the use of solid-phase extraction sorbent (SPE) as adsorbent and n-hexane as solvent, higher recoveries of the pesticide residues in the tobacco smoke from the amount spiked can be obtained. It was also found that cigarette filters help to reduce the intake of residues of pesticides that may be present in cigarettes. Finally, the study concluded that both active smoking and passive smoking populations are exposed to pesticide residues in the tobacco smoke.
Keywords
Environmental management accounting, Innovation, Water, Energy, CONTROL-SYSTEMS, MODERATING ROLE, PERFORMANCE, EMA, PRODUCT, IMPLEMENTATION, COMPANIES, STRATEGY, IMPACT, Plant protection products, Cigarettes, Active smoker, Passive smoker, CIGARETTE BUTT WASTE, MULTIRESIDUE ANALYSIS, EXTRACTION, NICOTINE, SINGLE, GC

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MLA
López Dávila, Edelbis, et al. “Pesticides Residues in Tobacco Smoke : Risk Assessment Study.” ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT, vol. 192, no. 9, 2020, doi:10.1007/s10661-020-08578-7.
APA
López Dávila, E., Houbraken, M., De Rop, J., Wumbei, A., Du Laing, G., Romero Romero, O., & Spanoghe, P. (2020). Pesticides residues in tobacco smoke : risk assessment study. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT, 192(9). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-08578-7
Chicago author-date
López Dávila, Edelbis, Michael Houbraken, Jasmine De Rop, Abukari Wumbei, Gijs Du Laing, Osvaldo Romero Romero, and Pieter Spanoghe. 2020. “Pesticides Residues in Tobacco Smoke : Risk Assessment Study.” ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT 192 (9). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-08578-7.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
López Dávila, Edelbis, Michael Houbraken, Jasmine De Rop, Abukari Wumbei, Gijs Du Laing, Osvaldo Romero Romero, and Pieter Spanoghe. 2020. “Pesticides Residues in Tobacco Smoke : Risk Assessment Study.” ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT 192 (9). doi:10.1007/s10661-020-08578-7.
Vancouver
1.
López Dávila E, Houbraken M, De Rop J, Wumbei A, Du Laing G, Romero Romero O, et al. Pesticides residues in tobacco smoke : risk assessment study. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT. 2020;192(9).
IEEE
[1]
E. López Dávila et al., “Pesticides residues in tobacco smoke : risk assessment study,” ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT, vol. 192, no. 9, 2020.
@article{8673389,
  abstract     = {{Pesticides are not only used on food but also on non-food crops, such as tobacco, to control a range of unwanted animal, plant, and microbial, fungal pests. The residue levels in tobacco leaves are expected to decline up to harvest, during drying, and when the leaves are further processed. Additional pesticides may also be applied to the finished product and residue levels may remain present even when the tobacco is burned. Human exposure to pesticide residues on tobacco occurs when residues remaining in cigarette smoke are inhaled. Based on this assumption, the objectives of this research were (i) to determine the level of pesticides residues in harvested tobacco leaves and (ii) to assess the risk of human exposure to these residues in tobacco smoke. Pesticide residues were detected in all analysed tobacco samples. These detected residues represent ten different active ingredients (AI), three of these AIs (thiodicarb, alachlor, and endosulfan) are no longer allowed in Europe. A 54.7% of these residues were quantifiable. Furthermore, it was found that with the use of solid-phase extraction sorbent (SPE) as adsorbent and n-hexane as solvent, higher recoveries of the pesticide residues in the tobacco smoke from the amount spiked can be obtained. It was also found that cigarette filters help to reduce the intake of residues of pesticides that may be present in cigarettes. Finally, the study concluded that both active smoking and passive smoking populations are exposed to pesticide residues in the tobacco smoke.}},
  articleno    = {{615}},
  author       = {{López Dávila, Edelbis and Houbraken, Michael and De Rop, Jasmine and Wumbei, Abukari and Du Laing, Gijs and Romero Romero, Osvaldo and Spanoghe, Pieter}},
  issn         = {{0167-6369}},
  journal      = {{ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT}},
  keywords     = {{Environmental management accounting,Innovation,Water,Energy,CONTROL-SYSTEMS,MODERATING ROLE,PERFORMANCE,EMA,PRODUCT,IMPLEMENTATION,COMPANIES,STRATEGY,IMPACT,Plant protection products,Cigarettes,Active smoker,Passive smoker,CIGARETTE BUTT WASTE,MULTIRESIDUE ANALYSIS,EXTRACTION,NICOTINE,SINGLE,GC}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{9}},
  pages        = {{15}},
  title        = {{Pesticides residues in tobacco smoke : risk assessment study}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-08578-7}},
  volume       = {{192}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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