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Protohistoric briquetage at Puntone (Tuscany, Italy) : principles and processes of an industry based on the leaching of saline lagoonal sediments

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Abstract
A protohistoric (c.10th–5th c. BC) briquetage site at Puntone (Tuscany, Italy) was studied to unravel the salt production processes and materials involved. Geophysical surveys were used to identify kilns, pits, and dumps. One of these pits and a dump were excavated, followed by detailed chemical and physical analyses of the materials encountered. The pit had been used for holding brine, obtained by leaching of lagoonal sediment over a sieve, that afterwards was discarded to form large dumps. Phases distinguished indicate that the pit filled with fine sediment and was regularly “cleaned.” The presence of ferroan‐magnesian calcite in the pit fill testifies to the prolonged presence of anoxic brine. The production processes could be reconstructed in detail by confronting the analytical results with known changes in composition of a brine upon evaporation. These pertain in particular to the accumulation of “bitterns” and increased B (boron) concentrations in a residual brine. Both could be traced in the materials studied, and were found to be far more indicative than the ubiquitously studied concentrations of Cl and Na.
Keywords
Archaeology, Archaeology, Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous), bitterns, briquetage, ferroan-magnesian calcite, geophysics, protohistory, salt production, RADIOCARBON RESERVOIR AGES, SALT PRODUCTION, EVAPORATION, WATER, SEA, SEQUENCES, SIDERITE, SEAWATER, CALCITE, MARINE

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MLA
Sevink, Jan, et al. “Protohistoric Briquetage at Puntone (Tuscany, Italy) : Principles and Processes of an Industry Based on the Leaching of Saline Lagoonal Sediments.” GEOARCHAEOLOGY-AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL, vol. 36, no. 1, 2021, pp. 54–71, doi:10.1002/gea.21820.
APA
Sevink, J., De Neef, W., Alessandri, L., van Hall, R. L., Ullrich, B., & Attema, P. A. J. (2021). Protohistoric briquetage at Puntone (Tuscany, Italy) : principles and processes of an industry based on the leaching of saline lagoonal sediments. GEOARCHAEOLOGY-AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL, 36(1), 54–71. https://doi.org/10.1002/gea.21820
Chicago author-date
Sevink, Jan, Wieke De Neef, Luca Alessandri, Rutger L. van Hall, Burkart Ullrich, and Peter A. J. Attema. 2021. “Protohistoric Briquetage at Puntone (Tuscany, Italy) : Principles and Processes of an Industry Based on the Leaching of Saline Lagoonal Sediments.” GEOARCHAEOLOGY-AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL 36 (1): 54–71. https://doi.org/10.1002/gea.21820.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Sevink, Jan, Wieke De Neef, Luca Alessandri, Rutger L. van Hall, Burkart Ullrich, and Peter A. J. Attema. 2021. “Protohistoric Briquetage at Puntone (Tuscany, Italy) : Principles and Processes of an Industry Based on the Leaching of Saline Lagoonal Sediments.” GEOARCHAEOLOGY-AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL 36 (1): 54–71. doi:10.1002/gea.21820.
Vancouver
1.
Sevink J, De Neef W, Alessandri L, van Hall RL, Ullrich B, Attema PAJ. Protohistoric briquetage at Puntone (Tuscany, Italy) : principles and processes of an industry based on the leaching of saline lagoonal sediments. GEOARCHAEOLOGY-AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL. 2021;36(1):54–71.
IEEE
[1]
J. Sevink, W. De Neef, L. Alessandri, R. L. van Hall, B. Ullrich, and P. A. J. Attema, “Protohistoric briquetage at Puntone (Tuscany, Italy) : principles and processes of an industry based on the leaching of saline lagoonal sediments,” GEOARCHAEOLOGY-AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 54–71, 2021.
@article{8673295,
  abstract     = {{A protohistoric (c.10th–5th c. BC) briquetage site at Puntone (Tuscany, Italy) was studied to unravel the salt production processes and materials involved. Geophysical surveys were used to identify kilns, pits, and dumps. One of these pits and a dump were excavated, followed by detailed chemical and physical analyses of the materials encountered. The pit had been used for holding brine, obtained by leaching of lagoonal sediment over a sieve, that afterwards was discarded to form large dumps. Phases distinguished indicate that the pit filled with fine sediment and was regularly “cleaned.” The presence of ferroan‐magnesian calcite in the pit fill testifies to the prolonged presence of anoxic brine. The production processes could be reconstructed in detail by confronting the analytical results with known changes in composition of a brine upon evaporation. These pertain in particular to the accumulation of “bitterns” and increased B (boron) concentrations in a residual brine. Both could be traced in the materials studied, and were found to be far more indicative than the ubiquitously studied concentrations of Cl and Na.}},
  author       = {{Sevink, Jan and De Neef, Wieke and Alessandri, Luca and van Hall, Rutger L. and Ullrich, Burkart and Attema, Peter A. J.}},
  issn         = {{0883-6353}},
  journal      = {{GEOARCHAEOLOGY-AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL}},
  keywords     = {{Archaeology,Archaeology,Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous),bitterns,briquetage,ferroan-magnesian calcite,geophysics,protohistory,salt production,RADIOCARBON RESERVOIR AGES,SALT PRODUCTION,EVAPORATION,WATER,SEA,SEQUENCES,SIDERITE,SEAWATER,CALCITE,MARINE}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{1}},
  pages        = {{54--71}},
  title        = {{Protohistoric briquetage at Puntone (Tuscany, Italy) : principles and processes of an industry based on the leaching of saline lagoonal sediments}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gea.21820}},
  volume       = {{36}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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