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Lost in regulation : Nord Stream 2 and the limits of the European Commission’s geo-economic power

Moniek de Jong (UGent) and Thijs Van de Graaf (UGent)
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Abstract
Scholars of the EU's external relations have long debated the question which 'power' the EU represents. When it comes to the EU's external energy relations, there is a convergence of views that the Commission has begun to assert its regulatory power beyond its own borders. Yet, few scholars have attempted to open the black box of this 'liberal mercantilist' model. This paper aims to fill that gap by process tracing and explaining the Commission's attempts to stymie the Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline project. Our analysis shows that the Commission has attempted, largely in vein, to achieve geopolitical ends through legal means. We find that this outcome can be explained through the lens of new integration theories. Our analysis illustrates both the limits of the Commission's regulatory toolbox and its efforts to broaden its mandate and strengthen its regulatory powers.
Keywords
International energy governance, European integration, new intergovernmentalism, European Commission, Gas Directive, EU ENERGY, INTERGOVERNMENTALISM, INTEGRATION, GOVERNANCE, COUNCIL, AUTHORITY, POLITICS, PROPOSAL, CRISIS, AMEND

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MLA
de Jong, Moniek, and Thijs Van de Graaf. “Lost in Regulation : Nord Stream 2 and the Limits of the European Commission’s Geo-Economic Power.” JOURNAL OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION, vol. 43, no. 4, 2021, pp. 495–510, doi:10.1080/07036337.2020.1800680.
APA
de Jong, M., & Van de Graaf, T. (2021). Lost in regulation : Nord Stream 2 and the limits of the European Commission’s geo-economic power. JOURNAL OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION, 43(4), 495–510. https://doi.org/10.1080/07036337.2020.1800680
Chicago author-date
Jong, Moniek de, and Thijs Van de Graaf. 2021. “Lost in Regulation : Nord Stream 2 and the Limits of the European Commission’s Geo-Economic Power.” JOURNAL OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION 43 (4): 495–510. https://doi.org/10.1080/07036337.2020.1800680.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
de Jong, Moniek, and Thijs Van de Graaf. 2021. “Lost in Regulation : Nord Stream 2 and the Limits of the European Commission’s Geo-Economic Power.” JOURNAL OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION 43 (4): 495–510. doi:10.1080/07036337.2020.1800680.
Vancouver
1.
de Jong M, Van de Graaf T. Lost in regulation : Nord Stream 2 and the limits of the European Commission’s geo-economic power. JOURNAL OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION. 2021;43(4):495–510.
IEEE
[1]
M. de Jong and T. Van de Graaf, “Lost in regulation : Nord Stream 2 and the limits of the European Commission’s geo-economic power,” JOURNAL OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 495–510, 2021.
@article{8671902,
  abstract     = {{Scholars of the EU's external relations have long debated the question which 'power' the EU represents. When it comes to the EU's external energy relations, there is a convergence of views that the Commission has begun to assert its regulatory power beyond its own borders. Yet, few scholars have attempted to open the black box of this 'liberal mercantilist' model. This paper aims to fill that gap by process tracing and explaining the Commission's attempts to stymie the Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline project. Our analysis shows that the Commission has attempted, largely in vein, to achieve geopolitical ends through legal means. We find that this outcome can be explained through the lens of new integration theories. Our analysis illustrates both the limits of the Commission's regulatory toolbox and its efforts to broaden its mandate and strengthen its regulatory powers.}},
  author       = {{de Jong, Moniek and Van de Graaf, Thijs}},
  issn         = {{0703-6337}},
  journal      = {{JOURNAL OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION}},
  keywords     = {{International energy governance,European integration,new intergovernmentalism,European Commission,Gas Directive,EU ENERGY,INTERGOVERNMENTALISM,INTEGRATION,GOVERNANCE,COUNCIL,AUTHORITY,POLITICS,PROPOSAL,CRISIS,AMEND}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{4}},
  pages        = {{495--510}},
  title        = {{Lost in regulation : Nord Stream 2 and the limits of the European Commission’s geo-economic power}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07036337.2020.1800680}},
  volume       = {{43}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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