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Iranian Multicenter Osteoporosis Studies (IMOS) during last decade : rationale, main findings, lessons learned and the way forward

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Abstract
Purpose Osteoporosis remains a major public health concern, considering its high prevalence along with its association with osteoporotic fractures. It imposes a heavy burden on the society worldwide as the population ages. This paper aims to provide a brief review on Iranian multicenter osteoporosis studies (IMOS) studies and provide some recommendations for improvement. Methods IMOS studies were conducted to investigate the prevalence of osteoporosis and related risk factors. This paper provides a general view on the Iranian multicenter osteoporosis studies (IMOS), conducted during last decades. Results The results showed a high prevalence of osteoporosis and vitamin D deficiency in the Iranian population. Although the study protocols were mainly similar, some differences were observed in terms of the study population and design. The protocol of IMOS-3 was modified to overcome the setbacks noted in the previous studies; however, it was implemented in two cities with noticeably different socioeconomic and geographical characteristics from five cities where the first phase was conducted, resulting in different lifestyles and habits. Although previous IMOS studies have raised major concerns regarding the high prevalence of osteoporosis and vitamin D deficiency, interpretation should be made with caution given the differences, especially in the surveyed cities. Such discrepancies cause problems in trend analysis, and nationally representative samplings are preferably needed to correctly compare the prevalence of osteoporosis and related risk factors. Conclusions Considering the aging population and the importance of osteoporosis and its complication, developing a standard surveillance system to obtain valid and nationally representative estimates is recommended.
Keywords
Internal Medicine, Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Osteoporosis, Iran, Prevalence, Vitamin D deficiency, VITAMIN-D DEFICIENCY, HIGH PREVALENCE, POPULATION, SARCOPENIA, DENSITY

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MLA
Fahimfar, Noushin, et al. “Iranian Multicenter Osteoporosis Studies (IMOS) during Last Decade : Rationale, Main Findings, Lessons Learned and the Way Forward.” JOURNAL OF DIABETES AND METABOLIC DISORDERS, 2020, doi:10.1007/s40200-020-00600-6.
APA
Fahimfar, N., Gharibzadeh, S., Khashayar, P., Rajabian, R., Ranjbar Omrani, G., Bahrami, A., … Larijani, B. (2020). Iranian Multicenter Osteoporosis Studies (IMOS) during last decade : rationale, main findings, lessons learned and the way forward. JOURNAL OF DIABETES AND METABOLIC DISORDERS. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40200-020-00600-6
Chicago author-date
Fahimfar, Noushin, Safoora Gharibzadeh, Patricia Khashayar, Reza Rajabian, Gholamhossein Ranjbar Omrani, Amir Bahrami, Iraj Nabipour, Afshin Ostovar, and Bagher Larijani. 2020. “Iranian Multicenter Osteoporosis Studies (IMOS) during Last Decade : Rationale, Main Findings, Lessons Learned and the Way Forward.” JOURNAL OF DIABETES AND METABOLIC DISORDERS. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40200-020-00600-6.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Fahimfar, Noushin, Safoora Gharibzadeh, Patricia Khashayar, Reza Rajabian, Gholamhossein Ranjbar Omrani, Amir Bahrami, Iraj Nabipour, Afshin Ostovar, and Bagher Larijani. 2020. “Iranian Multicenter Osteoporosis Studies (IMOS) during Last Decade : Rationale, Main Findings, Lessons Learned and the Way Forward.” JOURNAL OF DIABETES AND METABOLIC DISORDERS. doi:10.1007/s40200-020-00600-6.
Vancouver
1.
Fahimfar N, Gharibzadeh S, Khashayar P, Rajabian R, Ranjbar Omrani G, Bahrami A, et al. Iranian Multicenter Osteoporosis Studies (IMOS) during last decade : rationale, main findings, lessons learned and the way forward. JOURNAL OF DIABETES AND METABOLIC DISORDERS. 2020;
IEEE
[1]
N. Fahimfar et al., “Iranian Multicenter Osteoporosis Studies (IMOS) during last decade : rationale, main findings, lessons learned and the way forward,” JOURNAL OF DIABETES AND METABOLIC DISORDERS, 2020.
@article{8671319,
  abstract     = {Purpose Osteoporosis remains a major public health concern, considering its high prevalence along with its association with osteoporotic fractures. It imposes a heavy burden on the society worldwide as the population ages. This paper aims to provide a brief review on Iranian multicenter osteoporosis studies (IMOS) studies and provide some recommendations for improvement. Methods IMOS studies were conducted to investigate the prevalence of osteoporosis and related risk factors. This paper provides a general view on the Iranian multicenter osteoporosis studies (IMOS), conducted during last decades. Results The results showed a high prevalence of osteoporosis and vitamin D deficiency in the Iranian population. Although the study protocols were mainly similar, some differences were observed in terms of the study population and design. The protocol of IMOS-3 was modified to overcome the setbacks noted in the previous studies; however, it was implemented in two cities with noticeably different socioeconomic and geographical characteristics from five cities where the first phase was conducted, resulting in different lifestyles and habits. Although previous IMOS studies have raised major concerns regarding the high prevalence of osteoporosis and vitamin D deficiency, interpretation should be made with caution given the differences, especially in the surveyed cities. Such discrepancies cause problems in trend analysis, and nationally representative samplings are preferably needed to correctly compare the prevalence of osteoporosis and related risk factors. Conclusions Considering the aging population and the importance of osteoporosis and its complication, developing a standard surveillance system to obtain valid and nationally representative estimates is recommended.},
  author       = {Fahimfar, Noushin and Gharibzadeh, Safoora and Khashayar, Patricia and Rajabian, Reza and Ranjbar Omrani, Gholamhossein and Bahrami, Amir and Nabipour, Iraj and Ostovar, Afshin and Larijani, Bagher},
  issn         = {2251-6581},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF DIABETES AND METABOLIC DISORDERS},
  keywords     = {Internal Medicine,Endocrinology,Diabetes and Metabolism,Osteoporosis,Iran,Prevalence,Vitamin D deficiency,VITAMIN-D DEFICIENCY,HIGH PREVALENCE,POPULATION,SARCOPENIA,DENSITY},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {6},
  title        = {Iranian Multicenter Osteoporosis Studies (IMOS) during last decade : rationale, main findings, lessons learned and the way forward},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40200-020-00600-6},
  year         = {2020},
}

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