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Sputter yield measurements to evaluate the target state during reactive magnetron sputtering

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Abstract
The sputter yield and discharge voltage of fourteen target materials (Al, Cr, Cu, Mg, Mo, Nb, Pb, Ta, Ti, V, W, Y, Zn, and Zr) have been measured during reactive sputtering in argon/oxygen mixtures. The obtained oxide sputter yields strongly differ from the published data based on ion beam experiments. A second observation is that based on the discharge voltage behavior observed during target oxidation, the materials can be subdivided into two groups. For the first group, the discharge voltage increases on the target oxidation, while for the second group the opposite behavior is observed. Both observations are explained based on a model that accounts for oxygen implantation into the target, preferential oxygen sputtering, and additional oxygen loss mechanisms such as outdiffusion. The difference between both groups can be explained from the oxygen fraction in the gas discharge required to fully oxidize the target surface. This required fraction is lower for the first group, and higher for the second group, than the oxygen fraction when the reactive sputter process switches into poisoned mode. The required fraction is mainly defined by the oxide sputter yield. The lower sputter yield as compared to literature values can be attributed to implanted oxygen that dilutes the formed oxide and/or continuously replaces sputtered oxygen.
Keywords
Materials Chemistry, General Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Surfaces and Interfaces, Condensed Matter Physics, Oxide sputter yield, Discharge voltage, Reactive sputtering, ALUMINUM-OXIDE, ELECTRICAL-PROPERTIES, FILMS, HYSTERESIS, DEPOSITION, PRESSURE, ENERGY, MODEL

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MLA
Schelfhout, Roeland, et al. “Sputter Yield Measurements to Evaluate the Target State during Reactive Magnetron Sputtering.” SURFACE & COATINGS TECHNOLOGY, vol. 399, 2020, doi:10.1016/j.surfcoat.2020.126097.
APA
Schelfhout, R., Strijckmans, K., & Depla, D. (2020). Sputter yield measurements to evaluate the target state during reactive magnetron sputtering. SURFACE & COATINGS TECHNOLOGY, 399. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2020.126097
Chicago author-date
Schelfhout, Roeland, Koen Strijckmans, and Diederik Depla. 2020. “Sputter Yield Measurements to Evaluate the Target State during Reactive Magnetron Sputtering.” SURFACE & COATINGS TECHNOLOGY 399. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2020.126097.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Schelfhout, Roeland, Koen Strijckmans, and Diederik Depla. 2020. “Sputter Yield Measurements to Evaluate the Target State during Reactive Magnetron Sputtering.” SURFACE & COATINGS TECHNOLOGY 399. doi:10.1016/j.surfcoat.2020.126097.
Vancouver
1.
Schelfhout R, Strijckmans K, Depla D. Sputter yield measurements to evaluate the target state during reactive magnetron sputtering. SURFACE & COATINGS TECHNOLOGY. 2020;399.
IEEE
[1]
R. Schelfhout, K. Strijckmans, and D. Depla, “Sputter yield measurements to evaluate the target state during reactive magnetron sputtering,” SURFACE & COATINGS TECHNOLOGY, vol. 399, 2020.
@article{8670198,
  abstract     = {{The sputter yield and discharge voltage of fourteen target materials (Al, Cr, Cu, Mg, Mo, Nb, Pb, Ta, Ti, V, W, Y, Zn, and Zr) have been measured during reactive sputtering in argon/oxygen mixtures. The obtained oxide sputter yields strongly differ from the published data based on ion beam experiments. A second observation is that based on the discharge voltage behavior observed during target oxidation, the materials can be subdivided into two groups. For the first group, the discharge voltage increases on the target oxidation, while for the second group the opposite behavior is observed. Both observations are explained based on a model that accounts for oxygen implantation into the target, preferential oxygen sputtering, and additional oxygen loss mechanisms such as outdiffusion. The difference between both groups can be explained from the oxygen fraction in the gas discharge required to fully oxidize the target surface. This required fraction is lower for the first group, and higher for the second group, than the oxygen fraction when the reactive sputter process switches into poisoned mode. The required fraction is mainly defined by the oxide sputter yield. The lower sputter yield as compared to literature values can be attributed to implanted oxygen that dilutes the formed oxide and/or continuously replaces sputtered oxygen.}},
  articleno    = {{126097}},
  author       = {{Schelfhout, Roeland and Strijckmans, Koen and Depla, Diederik}},
  issn         = {{0257-8972}},
  journal      = {{SURFACE & COATINGS TECHNOLOGY}},
  keywords     = {{Materials Chemistry,General Chemistry,Surfaces,Coatings and Films,Surfaces and Interfaces,Condensed Matter Physics,Oxide sputter yield,Discharge voltage,Reactive sputtering,ALUMINUM-OXIDE,ELECTRICAL-PROPERTIES,FILMS,HYSTERESIS,DEPOSITION,PRESSURE,ENERGY,MODEL}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{8}},
  title        = {{Sputter yield measurements to evaluate the target state during reactive magnetron sputtering}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2020.126097}},
  volume       = {{399}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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