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Near-zero-waste processing of low-grade, complex primary ores and secondary raw materials in Europe : technology development trends

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Abstract
With an increasing number of low-grade primary ores starting to be cog-effectively mined, we are at the verge of mining a myriad of low-grade primary and secondary mineral materials. At the same time, mining practices and mineral waste recycling are both evolving towards sustainable near-zero-waste processing of low-grade resources within a circular economy that requires a shift in business models, policies and improvements in process technologies. This review discusses the evolution towards low-grade primary ore and secondary raw material mining that will allow for sufficient supply of critical raw materials as well as base metals. Seven low-grade ores, including primary (Greek and Polish laterites) and secondary (fayalitic slags, jarosite and goethite sludges, zincrich waste treatment sludge and chromium-rich neutralisation sludge) raw materials are discussed as typical examples for Europe. In order to treat diverse and complex low-grade ores efficiently, the use of a new metallurgical systems toolbox is proposed, which is populated with existing and innovative unit operations: (i) mineral processing, (ii) metal extraction, (iii) metal recovery and (iv) matrix valorisation. Several promising novel techniques are under development for these four unit-operations. From an economical and environmental point of view, such processes must be fitted into new (circular) business models, whereby impacts and costs are divided over the entire value chain. Currently, low-grade secondary raw material processing is only economic and environmentally beneficial when the mineral residues can be valorised and landfill costs are avoided and/or incentives for waste processing can be taken into account.
Keywords
Near-zero-waste, Circular economy, Low-grade ores, Recycling, Metals, Critical raw materials, DEEP-EUTECTIC SOLVENTS, LATERITE LEACH SOLUTIONS, ACID-MINE DRAINAGE, CIRCULAR ECONOMY, VALUABLE METALS, SULFURIC-ACID, SAPROLITIC LATERITE, IONIC LIQUIDS, RESOURCE EFFICIENCY, INORGANIC POLYMERS

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MLA
Spooren, Jeroen, et al. “Near-Zero-Waste Processing of Low-Grade, Complex Primary Ores and Secondary Raw Materials in Europe : Technology Development Trends.” RESOURCES CONSERVATION AND RECYCLING, vol. 160, 2020, doi:10.1016/j.resconrec.2020.104919.
APA
Spooren, J., Binnemans, K., Bjorkmalm, J., Breemersch, K., Dams, Y., Folens, K., … Kinnunen, P. (2020). Near-zero-waste processing of low-grade, complex primary ores and secondary raw materials in Europe : technology development trends. RESOURCES CONSERVATION AND RECYCLING, 160. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2020.104919
Chicago author-date
Spooren, Jeroen, Koen Binnemans, Johanna Bjorkmalm, Koen Breemersch, Yoko Dams, Karel Folens, Maria Gonzalez-Moya, et al. 2020. “Near-Zero-Waste Processing of Low-Grade, Complex Primary Ores and Secondary Raw Materials in Europe : Technology Development Trends.” RESOURCES CONSERVATION AND RECYCLING 160. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2020.104919.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Spooren, Jeroen, Koen Binnemans, Johanna Bjorkmalm, Koen Breemersch, Yoko Dams, Karel Folens, Maria Gonzalez-Moya, Liesbeth Horckmans, Konstantinos Komnitsas, Witold Kurylak, Maria Lopez, Jarno Makinen, Silviana Onisei, Koen Oorts, Arne Peys, Grzegorz Pietek, Yiannis Pontikes, Ruben Snellings, Maria Tripiana, Jeet Varia, Karin Willquist, Lourdes Yurramendi, and Paivi Kinnunen. 2020. “Near-Zero-Waste Processing of Low-Grade, Complex Primary Ores and Secondary Raw Materials in Europe : Technology Development Trends.” RESOURCES CONSERVATION AND RECYCLING 160. doi:10.1016/j.resconrec.2020.104919.
Vancouver
1.
Spooren J, Binnemans K, Bjorkmalm J, Breemersch K, Dams Y, Folens K, et al. Near-zero-waste processing of low-grade, complex primary ores and secondary raw materials in Europe : technology development trends. RESOURCES CONSERVATION AND RECYCLING. 2020;160.
IEEE
[1]
J. Spooren et al., “Near-zero-waste processing of low-grade, complex primary ores and secondary raw materials in Europe : technology development trends,” RESOURCES CONSERVATION AND RECYCLING, vol. 160, 2020.
@article{8669733,
  abstract     = {{With an increasing number of low-grade primary ores starting to be cog-effectively mined, we are at the verge of mining a myriad of low-grade primary and secondary mineral materials. At the same time, mining practices and mineral waste recycling are both evolving towards sustainable near-zero-waste processing of low-grade resources within a circular economy that requires a shift in business models, policies and improvements in process technologies. This review discusses the evolution towards low-grade primary ore and secondary raw material mining that will allow for sufficient supply of critical raw materials as well as base metals. Seven low-grade ores, including primary (Greek and Polish laterites) and secondary (fayalitic slags, jarosite and goethite sludges, zincrich waste treatment sludge and chromium-rich neutralisation sludge) raw materials are discussed as typical examples for Europe. In order to treat diverse and complex low-grade ores efficiently, the use of a new metallurgical systems toolbox is proposed, which is populated with existing and innovative unit operations: (i) mineral processing, (ii) metal extraction, (iii) metal recovery and (iv) matrix valorisation. Several promising novel techniques are under development for these four unit-operations. From an economical and environmental point of view, such processes must be fitted into new (circular) business models, whereby impacts and costs are divided over the entire value chain. Currently, low-grade secondary raw material processing is only economic and environmentally beneficial when the mineral residues can be valorised and landfill costs are avoided and/or incentives for waste processing can be taken into account.}},
  articleno    = {{104919}},
  author       = {{Spooren, Jeroen and Binnemans, Koen and Bjorkmalm, Johanna and Breemersch, Koen and Dams, Yoko and Folens, Karel and Gonzalez-Moya, Maria and Horckmans, Liesbeth and Komnitsas, Konstantinos and Kurylak, Witold and Lopez, Maria and Makinen, Jarno and Onisei, Silviana and Oorts, Koen and Peys, Arne and Pietek, Grzegorz and Pontikes, Yiannis and Snellings, Ruben and Tripiana, Maria and Varia, Jeet and Willquist, Karin and Yurramendi, Lourdes and Kinnunen, Paivi}},
  issn         = {{0921-3449}},
  journal      = {{RESOURCES CONSERVATION AND RECYCLING}},
  keywords     = {{Near-zero-waste,Circular economy,Low-grade ores,Recycling,Metals,Critical raw materials,DEEP-EUTECTIC SOLVENTS,LATERITE LEACH SOLUTIONS,ACID-MINE DRAINAGE,CIRCULAR ECONOMY,VALUABLE METALS,SULFURIC-ACID,SAPROLITIC LATERITE,IONIC LIQUIDS,RESOURCE EFFICIENCY,INORGANIC POLYMERS}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{18}},
  title        = {{Near-zero-waste processing of low-grade, complex primary ores and secondary raw materials in Europe : technology development trends}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2020.104919}},
  volume       = {{160}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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