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Adding insult to injury : effects of chronic oxybenzone exposure and elevated temperature on two reef -building corals

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Abstract
Coral bleaching due to global warming currently is the largest threat to coral reefs, which may be exacerbated by altered water quality. Elevated levels of the UV filter oxybenzone in coastal waters as a result of sunscreen use have recently been demonstrated. We studied the effect of chronic oxybenzone exposure and elevated water temperature on coral health. Microcolonies of Stylophora pistillata and Acropora tenuis were cultured in 20 flow-through aquaria, of which 10 were exposed to oxybenzone at a field-relevant concentration of ~0.06 μg L−1 at 26 °C. After two weeks, half of the corals experienced a heat wave culminating at 33 °C. All S. pistillata colonies survived the heat wave, although heat reduced growth and zooxanthellae density, irrespective of oxybenzone. Acropora tenuis survival decreased to 0% at 32 °C, and oxybenzone accelerated mortality. Oxybenzone and heat significantly impacted photosynthetic yield in both species, causing a 5% and 22–33% decrease, respectively. In addition, combined oxybenzone and temperature stress altered the abundance of five bacterial families in the microbiome of S. pistillata. Our results suggest that oxybenzone adds insult to injury by further weakening corals in the face of global warming.
Keywords
ORGANIC UV-FILTERS, GREAT-BARRIER-REEF, RISK-ASSESSMENT, ZOOXANTHELLAE, MICROBIOME, SUNSCREENS, PIGMENTS, BEACHES, RATES

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MLA
Wijgerde, Tim, et al. “Adding Insult to Injury : Effects of Chronic Oxybenzone Exposure and Elevated Temperature on Two Reef -Building Corals.” SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, vol. 733, 2020, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139030.
APA
Wijgerde, T., van Ballegooijen, M., Nijland, R., van der Loos, L., Kwadijk, C., Osinga, R., … Slijkerman, D. (2020). Adding insult to injury : effects of chronic oxybenzone exposure and elevated temperature on two reef -building corals. SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, 733. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139030
Chicago author-date
Wijgerde, Tim, Mike van Ballegooijen, Reindert Nijland, Luna van der Loos, Christiaan Kwadijk, Ronald Osinga, Albertinka Murk, and Diana Slijkerman. 2020. “Adding Insult to Injury : Effects of Chronic Oxybenzone Exposure and Elevated Temperature on Two Reef -Building Corals.” SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT 733. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139030.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Wijgerde, Tim, Mike van Ballegooijen, Reindert Nijland, Luna van der Loos, Christiaan Kwadijk, Ronald Osinga, Albertinka Murk, and Diana Slijkerman. 2020. “Adding Insult to Injury : Effects of Chronic Oxybenzone Exposure and Elevated Temperature on Two Reef -Building Corals.” SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT 733. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139030.
Vancouver
1.
Wijgerde T, van Ballegooijen M, Nijland R, van der Loos L, Kwadijk C, Osinga R, et al. Adding insult to injury : effects of chronic oxybenzone exposure and elevated temperature on two reef -building corals. SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT. 2020;733.
IEEE
[1]
T. Wijgerde et al., “Adding insult to injury : effects of chronic oxybenzone exposure and elevated temperature on two reef -building corals,” SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, vol. 733, 2020.
@article{8669424,
  abstract     = {{Coral bleaching due to global warming currently is the largest threat to coral reefs, which may be exacerbated by altered water quality. Elevated levels of the UV filter oxybenzone in coastal waters as a result of sunscreen use have recently been demonstrated. We studied the effect of chronic oxybenzone exposure and elevated water temperature on coral health. Microcolonies of Stylophora pistillata and Acropora tenuis were cultured in 20 flow-through aquaria, of which 10 were exposed to oxybenzone at a field-relevant concentration of ~0.06 μg L−1 at 26 °C. After two weeks, half of the corals experienced a heat wave culminating at 33 °C. All S. pistillata colonies survived the heat wave, although heat reduced growth and zooxanthellae density, irrespective of oxybenzone. Acropora tenuis survival decreased to 0% at 32 °C, and oxybenzone accelerated mortality. Oxybenzone and heat significantly impacted photosynthetic yield in both species, causing a 5% and 22–33% decrease, respectively. In addition, combined oxybenzone and temperature stress altered the abundance of five bacterial families in the microbiome of S. pistillata. Our results suggest that oxybenzone adds insult to injury by further weakening corals in the face of global warming.}},
  articleno    = {{139030}},
  author       = {{Wijgerde, Tim and van Ballegooijen, Mike and Nijland, Reindert and van der Loos, Luna and Kwadijk, Christiaan and Osinga, Ronald and Murk, Albertinka and Slijkerman, Diana}},
  issn         = {{0048-9697}},
  journal      = {{SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT}},
  keywords     = {{ORGANIC UV-FILTERS,GREAT-BARRIER-REEF,RISK-ASSESSMENT,ZOOXANTHELLAE,MICROBIOME,SUNSCREENS,PIGMENTS,BEACHES,RATES}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{11}},
  title        = {{Adding insult to injury : effects of chronic oxybenzone exposure and elevated temperature on two reef -building corals}},
  url          = {{http://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139030}},
  volume       = {{733}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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