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Sargramostim to treat patients with acute hypoxic respiratory failure due to COVID-19 (SARPAC) : a structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

Cedric Bosteels (UGent) , Bastiaan Maes (UGent) , Karel Van Damme (UGent) , Elisabeth De Leeuw (UGent) , Jozefien Declercq (UGent) , Anja Delporte (UGent) , Bénédicte Demeyere (UGent) , Stefanie Vermeersch (UGent) , Marnik Vuylsteke (UGent) , Joren Willaert, et al.
(2020) TRIALS. 21(1).
Author
Organization
Abstract
ObjectivesThe hypothesis of the proposed intervention is that Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has profound effects on antiviral immunity, and can provide the stimulus to restore immune homeostasis in the lung with acute lung injury post COVID-19, and can promote lung repair mechanisms, that lead to a 25% improvement in lung oxygenation parameters. Sargramostim is a man-made form of the naturally-occurring protein GM-CSF.Trial designA phase 4 academic, prospective, 2 arm (1:1 ratio), randomized, open-label, controlled trial.ParticipantsPatients aged 18-80 years admitted to specialized COVID-19 wards in 5 Belgian hospitals with recent (< 2 weeks prior to randomization) confirmed COVID-19 infection and acute respiratory failure defined as a PaO2/FiO(2) below 350 mmHg or SpO(2) below 93% on minimal 2 L/min supplemental oxygen. Patients were excluded from the trial in case of (1) known serious allergic reactions to yeast-derived products, (2) lithium carbonate therapy, (3) mechanical ventilation prior to randomization, (4) peripheral white blood cell count above 25.000/mu L and/or active myeloid malignancy, (5) high dose systemic steroid therapy (> 20 mg methylprednisolone or equivalent), (6) enrolment in another investigational study, (7) pregnant or breastfeeding or (8) ferritin levels > 2000 mu g/mL.Intervention and comparatorInhaled sargramostim 125 mu g twice daily for 5 days in addition to standard care. Upon progression of disease requiring mechanical ventilation or to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and initiation of mechanical ventilator support within the 5 day period, inhaled sargramostim will be replaced by intravenous sargramostim 125 mu g/m(2) body surface area once daily until the 5 day period is reached. From day 6 onwards, progressive patients in the active group will have the option to receive an additional 5 days of IV sargramostim, based on the treating physician's assessment. Intervention will be compared to standard of care. Subjects progressing to ARDS and requiring invasive mechanical ventilatory support, from day 6 onwards in the standard of care group will have the option (clinician's decision) to initiate IV sargramostim 125m mu g/m(2) body surface area once daily for 5 days.Main outcomesThe primary endpoint of this intervention is measuring oxygenation after 5 days of inhaled (and intravenous) treatment through assessment of a change in pretreatment and post-treatment ratio of PaO2/FiO(2) and through measurement of the P(A-a)O-2 gradient (PAO(2)= Partial alveolar pressure of oxygen, PaO2=Partial arterial pressure of oxygen; FiO(2)= Fraction of inspired oxygen).RandomisationPatients will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio. Randomization will be done using REDCap (electronic IWRS system).Blinding (masking)In this open-label trial neither participants, caregivers, nor those assessing the outcomes will be blinded to group assignment.Numbers to be randomised (sample size)A total of 80 patients with confirmed COVID-19 and acute hypoxic respiratory failure will be enrolled, 40 in the active and 40 in the control group.Trial StatusSARPAC protocol Version 2.0 (April 15 2020). Participant recruitment is ongoing in 5 Belgian Hospitals (i.e. University Hospital Ghent, AZ Sint-Jan Bruges, AZ Delta Roeselare, University Hospital Brussels and ZNA Middelheim Antwerp). Participant recruitment started on March 26(th) 2020. Given the current decline of the COVID-19 pandemic in Belgium, it is difficult to anticipate the rate of participant recruitment.Trial registrationThe trial was registered on Clinical Trials.gov on March 30(th), 2020 (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04326920) - retrospectively registered; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04326920?term=sarpac&recrs=ab&draw=2&rank=1 and on EudraCT on March 24th, 2020 (Identifier: 2020-001254-22).Full protocolThe full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.
Keywords
COVID-19, Randomised controlled trial, protocol, sargramostim, GM-CSF, leukine (R), oxygenation, hypoxic failure, PF ratio, A-a gradient, inflammatory monocyte, alveolar macrophage

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Citation

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MLA
Bosteels, Cedric, et al. “Sargramostim to Treat Patients with Acute Hypoxic Respiratory Failure Due to COVID-19 (SARPAC) : A Structured Summary of a Study Protocol for a Randomised Controlled Trial.” TRIALS, vol. 21, no. 1, Bmc, 2020, doi:10.1186/s13063-020-04451-7.
APA
Bosteels, C., Maes, B., Van Damme, K., De Leeuw, E., Declercq, J., Delporte, A., … Lambrecht, B. (2020). Sargramostim to treat patients with acute hypoxic respiratory failure due to COVID-19 (SARPAC) : a structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. TRIALS, 21(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04451-7
Chicago author-date
Bosteels, Cedric, Bastiaan Maes, Karel Van Damme, Elisabeth De Leeuw, Jozefien Declercq, Anja Delporte, Bénédicte Demeyere, et al. 2020. “Sargramostim to Treat Patients with Acute Hypoxic Respiratory Failure Due to COVID-19 (SARPAC) : A Structured Summary of a Study Protocol for a Randomised Controlled Trial.” TRIALS 21 (1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04451-7.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Bosteels, Cedric, Bastiaan Maes, Karel Van Damme, Elisabeth De Leeuw, Jozefien Declercq, Anja Delporte, Bénédicte Demeyere, Stefanie Vermeersch, Marnik Vuylsteke, Joren Willaert, Laura Bollé, Yuri Vanbiervliet, Jana Decuypere, Frederick Libeer, Stefaan Vandecasteele, Isabelle Peene, and Bart Lambrecht. 2020. “Sargramostim to Treat Patients with Acute Hypoxic Respiratory Failure Due to COVID-19 (SARPAC) : A Structured Summary of a Study Protocol for a Randomised Controlled Trial.” TRIALS 21 (1). doi:10.1186/s13063-020-04451-7.
Vancouver
1.
Bosteels C, Maes B, Van Damme K, De Leeuw E, Declercq J, Delporte A, et al. Sargramostim to treat patients with acute hypoxic respiratory failure due to COVID-19 (SARPAC) : a structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. TRIALS. 2020;21(1).
IEEE
[1]
C. Bosteels et al., “Sargramostim to treat patients with acute hypoxic respiratory failure due to COVID-19 (SARPAC) : a structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial,” TRIALS, vol. 21, no. 1, 2020.
@article{8669126,
  abstract     = {{ObjectivesThe hypothesis of the proposed intervention is that Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has profound effects on antiviral immunity, and can provide the stimulus to restore immune homeostasis in the lung with acute lung injury post COVID-19, and can promote lung repair mechanisms, that lead to a 25% improvement in lung oxygenation parameters. Sargramostim is a man-made form of the naturally-occurring protein GM-CSF.Trial designA phase 4 academic, prospective, 2 arm (1:1 ratio), randomized, open-label, controlled trial.ParticipantsPatients aged 18-80 years admitted to specialized COVID-19 wards in 5 Belgian hospitals with recent (< 2 weeks prior to randomization) confirmed COVID-19 infection and acute respiratory failure defined as a PaO2/FiO(2) below 350 mmHg or SpO(2) below 93% on minimal 2 L/min supplemental oxygen. Patients were excluded from the trial in case of (1) known serious allergic reactions to yeast-derived products, (2) lithium carbonate therapy, (3) mechanical ventilation prior to randomization, (4) peripheral white blood cell count above 25.000/mu L and/or active myeloid malignancy, (5) high dose systemic steroid therapy (> 20 mg methylprednisolone or equivalent), (6) enrolment in another investigational study, (7) pregnant or breastfeeding or (8) ferritin levels > 2000 mu g/mL.Intervention and comparatorInhaled sargramostim 125 mu g twice daily for 5 days in addition to standard care. Upon progression of disease requiring mechanical ventilation or to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and initiation of mechanical ventilator support within the 5 day period, inhaled sargramostim will be replaced by intravenous sargramostim 125 mu g/m(2) body surface area once daily until the 5 day period is reached. From day 6 onwards, progressive patients in the active group will have the option to receive an additional 5 days of IV sargramostim, based on the treating physician's assessment. Intervention will be compared to standard of care. Subjects progressing to ARDS and requiring invasive mechanical ventilatory support, from day 6 onwards in the standard of care group will have the option (clinician's decision) to initiate IV sargramostim 125m mu g/m(2) body surface area once daily for 5 days.Main outcomesThe primary endpoint of this intervention is measuring oxygenation after 5 days of inhaled (and intravenous) treatment through assessment of a change in pretreatment and post-treatment ratio of PaO2/FiO(2) and through measurement of the P(A-a)O-2 gradient (PAO(2)= Partial alveolar pressure of oxygen, PaO2=Partial arterial pressure of oxygen; FiO(2)= Fraction of inspired oxygen).RandomisationPatients will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio. Randomization will be done using REDCap (electronic IWRS system).Blinding (masking)In this open-label trial neither participants, caregivers, nor those assessing the outcomes will be blinded to group assignment.Numbers to be randomised (sample size)A total of 80 patients with confirmed COVID-19 and acute hypoxic respiratory failure will be enrolled, 40 in the active and 40 in the control group.Trial StatusSARPAC protocol Version 2.0 (April 15 2020). Participant recruitment is ongoing in 5 Belgian Hospitals (i.e. University Hospital Ghent, AZ Sint-Jan Bruges, AZ Delta Roeselare, University Hospital Brussels and ZNA Middelheim Antwerp). Participant recruitment started on March 26(th) 2020. Given the current decline of the COVID-19 pandemic in Belgium, it is difficult to anticipate the rate of participant recruitment.Trial registrationThe trial was registered on Clinical Trials.gov on March 30(th), 2020 (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04326920) - retrospectively registered; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04326920?term=sarpac&recrs=ab&draw=2&rank=1 and on EudraCT on March 24th, 2020 (Identifier: 2020-001254-22).Full protocolThe full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.}},
  articleno    = {{491}},
  author       = {{Bosteels, Cedric and Maes, Bastiaan and Van Damme, Karel and De Leeuw, Elisabeth and Declercq, Jozefien and Delporte, Anja and Demeyere, Bénédicte and Vermeersch, Stefanie and Vuylsteke, Marnik and Willaert, Joren and Bollé, Laura and Vanbiervliet, Yuri and Decuypere, Jana and Libeer, Frederick and Vandecasteele, Stefaan and Peene, Isabelle and Lambrecht, Bart}},
  issn         = {{1745-6215}},
  journal      = {{TRIALS}},
  keywords     = {{COVID-19,Randomised controlled trial,protocol,sargramostim,GM-CSF,leukine (R),oxygenation,hypoxic failure,PF ratio,A-a gradient,inflammatory monocyte,alveolar macrophage}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{1}},
  pages        = {{2}},
  publisher    = {{Bmc}},
  title        = {{Sargramostim to treat patients with acute hypoxic respiratory failure due to COVID-19 (SARPAC) : a structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04451-7}},
  volume       = {{21}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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