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Is there enough evidence for osteosarcopenic obesity as a distinct entity? A critical literature review

(2019) CALCIFIED TISSUE INTERNATIONAL. 105(2). p.109-124
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Abstract
The co-existence of impaired bone health (osteopenia/osteoporosis), reduced muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia), and increased adiposity (obesity) in middle-aged and older people has been identified in recent studies, leading to a proposal for the existence of osteosarcopenic obesity as a distinct entity. Evidence for the pathophysiological overlap of these conditions is mounting, although a causal relationship is yet to be established. Each component condition occurs frequently with increasing age, and with shared risk factors in many instances, thus, an overlap of these three conditions is not surprising. However, whether the concurrent existence of sarcopenia, osteoporosis and obesity leads to an increased risk of adverse musculoskeletal outcomes and mortality above and beyond the risks associated with the sum of the component parts remains to be proven and is a question of research interest. In this article, we review evidence for the existence of osteosarcopenic obesity including the current operational definition of osteosarcopenic obesity, prevalence, pathophysiology, outcomes and exploratory approaches to the management of components. We conclude that, there is insufficient evidence to support a discrete clinical entity of osteosarcopenic obesity at this time. To expand knowledge and understanding in this area, there is a need for consensus on a definition of osteosarcopenic obesity which will allow for identification, further epidemiological studies and comparisons between studies. Additionally, studies should assess whether the clinical outcomes associated with osteosarcopenic obesity are worse than the mere addition of those linked with its components. This will help to determine whether defining a person as having this triad will eventually result in a more effective treatment than addressing each of the three conditions separately.
Keywords
Obesity, Osteoporosis, Sarcopenia, Osteosarcopenia, Sarcopenic obesity, QUALITY-OF-LIFE, MYOFIBRILLAR PROTEIN-SYNTHESIS, STRUCTURED PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY, COMMUNITY-DWELLING ADULTS, IMPROVES BODY-COMPOSITION, LIMITED OLDER-ADULTS, GROWTH-HORMONE, SARCOPENIC OBESITY, SKELETAL-MUSCLE, DOUBLE-BLIND

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MLA
Bauer, Juergen M., et al. “Is There Enough Evidence for Osteosarcopenic Obesity as a Distinct Entity? A Critical Literature Review.” CALCIFIED TISSUE INTERNATIONAL, vol. 105, no. 2, 2019, pp. 109–24, doi:10.1007/s00223-019-00561-w.
APA
Bauer, J. M., Cruz-Jentoft, A. J., Fielding, R. A., Kanis, J. A., Reginster, J.-Y., Bruyere, O., … Cooper, C. (2019). Is there enough evidence for osteosarcopenic obesity as a distinct entity? A critical literature review. CALCIFIED TISSUE INTERNATIONAL, 105(2), 109–124. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00223-019-00561-w
Chicago author-date
Bauer, Juergen M., Alfonso J. Cruz-Jentoft, Roger A. Fielding, John A. Kanis, Jean-Yves Reginster, Olivier Bruyere, Matteo Cesari, et al. 2019. “Is There Enough Evidence for Osteosarcopenic Obesity as a Distinct Entity? A Critical Literature Review.” CALCIFIED TISSUE INTERNATIONAL 105 (2): 109–24. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00223-019-00561-w.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Bauer, Juergen M., Alfonso J. Cruz-Jentoft, Roger A. Fielding, John A. Kanis, Jean-Yves Reginster, Olivier Bruyere, Matteo Cesari, Roland Chapurlat, Nasser Al-Daghri, Elaine Dennison, Jean Kaufman, Francesco Landi, Andrea Laslop, Medea Locquet, Stefania Maggi, Eugene McCloskey, Simone Perna, Rene Rizzoli, Yves Rolland, Mariangela Rondanelli, Pawel Szulc, Bruno Vellas, Mila Vlaskovska, and Cyrus Cooper. 2019. “Is There Enough Evidence for Osteosarcopenic Obesity as a Distinct Entity? A Critical Literature Review.” CALCIFIED TISSUE INTERNATIONAL 105 (2): 109–124. doi:10.1007/s00223-019-00561-w.
Vancouver
1.
Bauer JM, Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Fielding RA, Kanis JA, Reginster J-Y, Bruyere O, et al. Is there enough evidence for osteosarcopenic obesity as a distinct entity? A critical literature review. CALCIFIED TISSUE INTERNATIONAL. 2019;105(2):109–24.
IEEE
[1]
J. M. Bauer et al., “Is there enough evidence for osteosarcopenic obesity as a distinct entity? A critical literature review,” CALCIFIED TISSUE INTERNATIONAL, vol. 105, no. 2, pp. 109–124, 2019.
@article{8668553,
  abstract     = {The co-existence of impaired bone health (osteopenia/osteoporosis), reduced muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia), and increased adiposity (obesity) in middle-aged and older people has been identified in recent studies, leading to a proposal for the existence of osteosarcopenic obesity as a distinct entity. Evidence for the pathophysiological overlap of these conditions is mounting, although a causal relationship is yet to be established. Each component condition occurs frequently with increasing age, and with shared risk factors in many instances, thus, an overlap of these three conditions is not surprising. However, whether the concurrent existence of sarcopenia, osteoporosis and obesity leads to an increased risk of adverse musculoskeletal outcomes and mortality above and beyond the risks associated with the sum of the component parts remains to be proven and is a question of research interest. In this article, we review evidence for the existence of osteosarcopenic obesity including the current operational definition of osteosarcopenic obesity, prevalence, pathophysiology, outcomes and exploratory approaches to the management of components. We conclude that, there is insufficient evidence to support a discrete clinical entity of osteosarcopenic obesity at this time. To expand knowledge and understanding in this area, there is a need for consensus on a definition of osteosarcopenic obesity which will allow for identification, further epidemiological studies and comparisons between studies. Additionally, studies should assess whether the clinical outcomes associated with osteosarcopenic obesity are worse than the mere addition of those linked with its components. This will help to determine whether defining a person as having this triad will eventually result in a more effective treatment than addressing each of the three conditions separately.},
  author       = {Bauer, Juergen M. and Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso J. and Fielding, Roger A. and Kanis, John A. and Reginster, Jean-Yves and Bruyere, Olivier and Cesari, Matteo and Chapurlat, Roland and Al-Daghri, Nasser and Dennison, Elaine and Kaufman, Jean and Landi, Francesco and Laslop, Andrea and Locquet, Medea and Maggi, Stefania and McCloskey, Eugene and Perna, Simone and Rizzoli, Rene and Rolland, Yves and Rondanelli, Mariangela and Szulc, Pawel and Vellas, Bruno and Vlaskovska, Mila and Cooper, Cyrus},
  issn         = {0171-967X},
  journal      = {CALCIFIED TISSUE INTERNATIONAL},
  keywords     = {Obesity,Osteoporosis,Sarcopenia,Osteosarcopenia,Sarcopenic obesity,QUALITY-OF-LIFE,MYOFIBRILLAR PROTEIN-SYNTHESIS,STRUCTURED PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY,COMMUNITY-DWELLING ADULTS,IMPROVES BODY-COMPOSITION,LIMITED OLDER-ADULTS,GROWTH-HORMONE,SARCOPENIC OBESITY,SKELETAL-MUSCLE,DOUBLE-BLIND},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {109--124},
  title        = {Is there enough evidence for osteosarcopenic obesity as a distinct entity? A critical literature review},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00223-019-00561-w},
  volume       = {105},
  year         = {2019},
}

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