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ENIGMA and global neuroscience : a decade of large-scale studies of the brain in health and disease across more than 40 countries

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Abstract
This review summarizes the last decade of work by the ENIGMA (Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta Analysis) Consortium, a global alliance of over 1400 scientists across 43 countries, studying the human brain in health and disease. Building on large-scale genetic studies that discovered the first robustly replicated genetic loci associated with brain metrics, ENIGMA has diversified into over 50 working groups (WGs), pooling worldwide data and expertise to answer fundamental questions in neuroscience, psychiatry, neurology, and genetics. Most ENIGMA WGs focus on specific psychiatric and neurological conditions, other WGs study normal variation due to sex and gender differences, or development and aging; still other WGs develop methodological pipelines and tools to facilitate harmonized analyses of "big data" (i.e., genetic and epigenetic data, multimodal MRI, and electroencephalography data). These international efforts have yielded the largest neuroimaging studies to date in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance use disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, epilepsy, and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. More recent ENIGMA WGs have formed to study anxiety disorders, suicidal thoughts and behavior, sleep and insomnia, eating disorders, irritability, brain injury, antisocial personality and conduct disorder, and dissociative identity disorder. Here, we summarize the first decade of ENIGMA's activities and ongoing projects, and describe the successes and challenges encountered along the way. We highlight the advantages of collaborative large-scale coordinated data analyses for testing reproducibility and robustness of findings, offering the opportunity to identify brain systems involved in clinical syndromes across diverse samples and associated genetic, environmental, demographic, cognitive, and psychosocial factors.
Keywords
MEGA-ANALYSIS, ENDOPHENOTYPE CONCEPT, HERITABILITY ANALYSIS, ALZHEIMERS-DISEASE, GENETIC INFLUENCES, VOLUMES, WORKING, SCHIZOPHRENIA, DISORDER, RISK

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MLA
Thompson, Paul M., et al. “ENIGMA and Global Neuroscience : A Decade of Large-Scale Studies of the Brain in Health and Disease across More than 40 Countries.” TRANSLATIONAL PSYCHIATRY, vol. 10, no. 1, 2020, doi:10.1038/s41398-020-0705-1.
APA
Thompson, P. M., Jahanshad, N., Ching, C. R. K., Salminen, L. E., Thomopoulos, S. I., Bright, J., … Zelman, V. (2020). ENIGMA and global neuroscience : a decade of large-scale studies of the brain in health and disease across more than 40 countries. TRANSLATIONAL PSYCHIATRY, 10(1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41398-020-0705-1
Chicago author-date
Thompson, Paul M., Neda Jahanshad, Christopher R. K. Ching, Lauren E. Salminen, Sophia I. Thomopoulos, Joanna Bright, Bernhard T. Baune, et al. 2020. “ENIGMA and Global Neuroscience : A Decade of Large-Scale Studies of the Brain in Health and Disease across More than 40 Countries.” TRANSLATIONAL PSYCHIATRY 10 (1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41398-020-0705-1.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Thompson, Paul M., Neda Jahanshad, Christopher R. K. Ching, Lauren E. Salminen, Sophia I. Thomopoulos, Joanna Bright, Bernhard T. Baune, Sara Bertolin, Janita Bralten, Willem B. Bruin, Robin Buelow, Jian Chen, Yann Chye, Udo Dannlowski, Carolien G. F. de Kovel, Gary Donohoe, Lisa T. Eyler, Stephen V. Faraone, Pauline Favre, Courtney A. Filippi, Thomas Frodl, Daniel Garijo, Yolanda Gil, Hans J. Grabe, Katrina L. Grasby, Tomas Hajek, Laura K. M. Han, Sean N. Hatton, Kevin Hilbert, Tiffany C. Ho, Laurena Holleran, Georg Homuth, Norbert Hosten, Josselin Houenou, Iliyan Ivanov, Tianye Jia, Sinead Kelly, Marieke Klein, Jun Soo Kwon, Max A. Laansma, Jeanne Leerssen, Ulrike Lueken, Abraham Nunes, Joseph O’ Neill, Nils Opel, Fabrizio Piras, Federica Piras, Merel C. Postema, Elena Pozzi, Natalia Shatokhina, Carles Soriano-Mas, Gianfranco Spalletta, Daqiang Sun, Alexander Teumer, Amanda K. Tilot, Leonardo Tozzi, Celia van der Merwe, Eus J. W. Van Someren, Guido A. van Wingen, Henry Voelzke, Esther Walton, Lei Wang, Anderson M. Winkler, Katharina Wittfeld, Margaret J. Wright, Je-Yeon Yun, Guohao Zhang, Yanli Zhang-James, Bhim M. Adhikari, Ingrid Agartz, Moji Aghajani, Andre Aleman, Robert R. Althoff, Andre Altmann, Ole A. Andreassen, David A. Baron, Brenda L. Bartnik-Olson, Janna Bas-Hoogendam, Arielle R. Baskin-Sommers, Carrie E. Bearden, Laura A. Berner, Premika S. W. Boedhoe, Rachel M. Brouwer, Jan K. Buitelaar, Karen Caeyenberghs, Charlotte A. M. Cecil, Ronald A. Cohen, James H. Cole, Patricia J. Conrod, Stephane A. De Brito, Sonja M. C. de Zwarte, Emily L. Dennis, Sylvane Desrivieres, Danai Dima, Stefan Ehrlich, Carrie Esopenko, Graeme Fairchild, Simon E. Fisher, Jean-Paul Fouche, Clyde Francks, Sophia Frangou, Barbara Franke, Hugh P. Garavan, David C. Glahn, Nynke A. Groenewold, Tiril P. Gurholt, Boris A. Gutman, Tim Hahn, Ian H. Harding, Dennis Hernaus, Derrek P. Hibar, Frank G. Hillary, Martine Hoogman, Hilleke E. Pol, Maria Jalbrzikowski, George A. Karkashadze, Eduard T. Klapwijk, Rebecca C. Knickmeyer, Peter Kochunov, Inga K. Koerte, Xiang-Zhen Kong, Sook-Lei Liew, Alexander P. Lin, Mark W. Logue, Eileen Luders, Fabio Macciardi, Scott Mackey, Andrew R. Mayer, Carrie R. McDonald, Agnes B. McMahon, Sarah E. Medland, Gemma Modinos, Rajendra A. Morey, Sven Müller, Pratik Mukherjee, Leyla Namazova-Baranova, Talia M. Nir, Alexander Olsen, Peristera Paschou, Daniel S. Pine, Fabrizio Pizzagalli, Miguel E. Renteria, Jonathan D. Rohrer, Philipp G. Saemann, Lianne Schmaal, Gunter Schumann, Mark S. Shiroishi, Sanjay M. Sisodiya, Dirk J. A. Smit, Ida E. Sonderby, Dan J. Stein, Jason L. Stein, Masoud Tahmasian, David F. Tate, Jessica A. Turner, Odile A. van den Heuvel, Nic J. A. van der Wee, Ysbrand D. van der Werf, Theo G. M. van Erp, Neeltje E. M. van Haren, Daan van Rooij, Laura S. van Velzen, Ilya M. Veer, Dick J. Veltman, Julio E. Villalon-Reina, Henrik Walter, Christopher D. Whelan, Elisabeth A. Wilde, Mojtaba Zarei, and Vladimir Zelman. 2020. “ENIGMA and Global Neuroscience : A Decade of Large-Scale Studies of the Brain in Health and Disease across More than 40 Countries.” TRANSLATIONAL PSYCHIATRY 10 (1). doi:10.1038/s41398-020-0705-1.
Vancouver
1.
Thompson PM, Jahanshad N, Ching CRK, Salminen LE, Thomopoulos SI, Bright J, et al. ENIGMA and global neuroscience : a decade of large-scale studies of the brain in health and disease across more than 40 countries. TRANSLATIONAL PSYCHIATRY. 2020;10(1).
IEEE
[1]
P. M. Thompson et al., “ENIGMA and global neuroscience : a decade of large-scale studies of the brain in health and disease across more than 40 countries,” TRANSLATIONAL PSYCHIATRY, vol. 10, no. 1, 2020.
@article{8668256,
  abstract     = {This review summarizes the last decade of work by the ENIGMA (Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta Analysis) Consortium, a global alliance of over 1400 scientists across 43 countries, studying the human brain in health and disease. Building on large-scale genetic studies that discovered the first robustly replicated genetic loci associated with brain metrics, ENIGMA has diversified into over 50 working groups (WGs), pooling worldwide data and expertise to answer fundamental questions in neuroscience, psychiatry, neurology, and genetics. Most ENIGMA WGs focus on specific psychiatric and neurological conditions, other WGs study normal variation due to sex and gender differences, or development and aging; still other WGs develop methodological pipelines and tools to facilitate harmonized analyses of "big data" (i.e., genetic and epigenetic data, multimodal MRI, and electroencephalography data). These international efforts have yielded the largest neuroimaging studies to date in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance use disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, epilepsy, and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. More recent ENIGMA WGs have formed to study anxiety disorders, suicidal thoughts and behavior, sleep and insomnia, eating disorders, irritability, brain injury, antisocial personality and conduct disorder, and dissociative identity disorder. Here, we summarize the first decade of ENIGMA's activities and ongoing projects, and describe the successes and challenges encountered along the way. We highlight the advantages of collaborative large-scale coordinated data analyses for testing reproducibility and robustness of findings, offering the opportunity to identify brain systems involved in clinical syndromes across diverse samples and associated genetic, environmental, demographic, cognitive, and psychosocial factors.},
  articleno    = {100},
  author       = {Thompson, Paul M. and Jahanshad, Neda and Ching, Christopher R. K. and Salminen, Lauren E. and Thomopoulos, Sophia I. and Bright, Joanna and Baune, Bernhard T. and Bertolin, Sara and Bralten, Janita and Bruin, Willem B. and Buelow, Robin and Chen, Jian and Chye, Yann and Dannlowski, Udo and de Kovel, Carolien G. F. and Donohoe, Gary and Eyler, Lisa T. and Faraone, Stephen V. and Favre, Pauline and Filippi, Courtney A. and Frodl, Thomas and Garijo, Daniel and Gil, Yolanda and Grabe, Hans J. and Grasby, Katrina L. and Hajek, Tomas and Han, Laura K. M. and Hatton, Sean N. and Hilbert, Kevin and Ho, Tiffany C. and Holleran, Laurena and Homuth, Georg and Hosten, Norbert and Houenou, Josselin and Ivanov, Iliyan and Jia, Tianye and Kelly, Sinead and Klein, Marieke and Kwon, Jun Soo and Laansma, Max A. and Leerssen, Jeanne and Lueken, Ulrike and Nunes, Abraham and Neill, Joseph O' and Opel, Nils and Piras, Fabrizio and Piras, Federica and Postema, Merel C. and Pozzi, Elena and Shatokhina, Natalia and Soriano-Mas, Carles and Spalletta, Gianfranco and Sun, Daqiang and Teumer, Alexander and Tilot, Amanda K. and Tozzi, Leonardo and van der Merwe, Celia and Van Someren, Eus J. W. and van Wingen, Guido A. and Voelzke, Henry and Walton, Esther and Wang, Lei and Winkler, Anderson M. and Wittfeld, Katharina and Wright, Margaret J. and Yun, Je-Yeon and Zhang, Guohao and Zhang-James, Yanli and Adhikari, Bhim M. and Agartz, Ingrid and Aghajani, Moji and Aleman, Andre and Althoff, Robert R. and Altmann, Andre and Andreassen, Ole A. and Baron, David A. and Bartnik-Olson, Brenda L. and Bas-Hoogendam, Janna and Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R. and Bearden, Carrie E. and Berner, Laura A. and Boedhoe, Premika S. W. and Brouwer, Rachel M. and Buitelaar, Jan K. and Caeyenberghs, Karen and Cecil, Charlotte A. M. and Cohen, Ronald A. and Cole, James H. and Conrod, Patricia J. and De Brito, Stephane A. and de Zwarte, Sonja M. C. and Dennis, Emily L. and Desrivieres, Sylvane and Dima, Danai and Ehrlich, Stefan and Esopenko, Carrie and Fairchild, Graeme and Fisher, Simon E. and Fouche, Jean-Paul and Francks, Clyde and Frangou, Sophia and Franke, Barbara and Garavan, Hugh P. and Glahn, David C. and Groenewold, Nynke A. and Gurholt, Tiril P. and Gutman, Boris A. and Hahn, Tim and Harding, Ian H. and Hernaus, Dennis and Hibar, Derrek P. and Hillary, Frank G. and Hoogman, Martine and Pol, Hilleke E. and Jalbrzikowski, Maria and Karkashadze, George A. and Klapwijk, Eduard T. and Knickmeyer, Rebecca C. and Kochunov, Peter and Koerte, Inga K. and Kong, Xiang-Zhen and Liew, Sook-Lei and Lin, Alexander P. and Logue, Mark W. and Luders, Eileen and Macciardi, Fabio and Mackey, Scott and Mayer, Andrew R. and McDonald, Carrie R. and McMahon, Agnes B. and Medland, Sarah E. and Modinos, Gemma and Morey, Rajendra A. and Müller, Sven and Mukherjee, Pratik and Namazova-Baranova, Leyla and Nir, Talia M. and Olsen, Alexander and Paschou, Peristera and Pine, Daniel S. and Pizzagalli, Fabrizio and Renteria, Miguel E. and Rohrer, Jonathan D. and Saemann, Philipp G. and Schmaal, Lianne and Schumann, Gunter and Shiroishi, Mark S. and Sisodiya, Sanjay M. and Smit, Dirk J. A. and Sonderby, Ida E. and Stein, Dan J. and Stein, Jason L. and Tahmasian, Masoud and Tate, David F. and Turner, Jessica A. and van den Heuvel, Odile A. and van der Wee, Nic J. A. and van der Werf, Ysbrand D. and van Erp, Theo G. M. and van Haren, Neeltje E. M. and van Rooij, Daan and van Velzen, Laura S. and Veer, Ilya M. and Veltman, Dick J. and Villalon-Reina, Julio E. and Walter, Henrik and Whelan, Christopher D. and Wilde, Elisabeth A. and Zarei, Mojtaba and Zelman, Vladimir},
  issn         = {2158-3188},
  journal      = {TRANSLATIONAL PSYCHIATRY},
  keywords     = {MEGA-ANALYSIS,ENDOPHENOTYPE CONCEPT,HERITABILITY ANALYSIS,ALZHEIMERS-DISEASE,GENETIC INFLUENCES,VOLUMES,WORKING,SCHIZOPHRENIA,DISORDER,RISK},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {28},
  title        = {ENIGMA and global neuroscience : a decade of large-scale studies of the brain in health and disease across more than 40 countries},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-020-0705-1},
  volume       = {10},
  year         = {2020},
}

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