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Microbial and dietary factors are associated with the equol producer phenotype in healthy postmenopausal women

(2007) JOURNAL OF NUTRITION. 137(10). p.2242-2246
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Abstract
Equol, a microbial metabolite of daidzein, has been hypothesized as a clue to the effectiveness of soy and its isoflavones but is excreted by only 33% of Caucasians. Microbial and dietary factors associated with the ability to harbor equol-producing bacteria were studied in a randomized dietary intervention trial with 100 healthy postmenopausal women. After a 4-d baseline period, subjects delivered first-void urine, fecal, and breath samples. During the 5-d treatment period, 3 portions of either soymilk or soy germ containing 28.51 and 37.99 mg isoflavone aglycone equivalents/portion, respectively, were administered daily, and on the last day, 24-h urine samples were collected. The urinary recoveries of genistein and daidzein from soymilk were significantly higher than those from soy germ tablets. Because the proportion of equol:(daidzein + metabolites) in the urine did not differ between the treatment groups, subjects were pooled and classified into poor, moderate, and strong equol producers based on this criterion. The strong equol producer phenotype correlated negatively [in vivo, r = -0.478 (-0.256 to -0.893), P = 0.021; in vitro, r = -0.576 (-0.350 to -0.949), P = 0.030] with Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale counts and positively [in vivo, r = 1158 (0.971-1.380), P = 0.048; in vitro, r = 1.156 (1.007-1.327), P = 0.039] with the abundance of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Furthermore, persons with a higher PUFA [in vivo, r = 2.150 (1.058-4.371), P = 0.034; in vitro, r = 2.131 (1.144-3.967), P = 0.017] and alcohol [in vivo, r = 1.166 (0.721-1.887), P = 0.050, in vitro, r = 1.850 (1.215-2.817), P = 0.004] intake were more likely to be strong equol producers. Finally, we validated the daidzein metabolism by fecal cultures as screening assay to identify equol producers without dietary intervention.
Keywords
PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN, GUT MICROFLORA, BREAST-CANCER, HABITUAL DIET, SOY, ISOFLAVONES, PHYTOESTROGENS, EXCRETION, METABOLISM, BIOAVAILABILITY

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Chicago
Bolca, Selin, Sam Possemiers, Annelies Herregat, Inge Huybrechts, Arne Heyerick, Stephanie De Vriese, Marian Verbruggen, et al. 2007. “Microbial and Dietary Factors Are Associated with the Equol Producer Phenotype in Healthy Postmenopausal Women.” Journal of Nutrition 137 (10): 2242–2246.
APA
Bolca, S., Possemiers, S., Herregat, A., Huybrechts, I., Heyerick, A., De Vriese, S., Verbruggen, M., et al. (2007). Microbial and dietary factors are associated with the equol producer phenotype in healthy postmenopausal women. JOURNAL OF NUTRITION, 137(10), 2242–2246.
Vancouver
1.
Bolca S, Possemiers S, Herregat A, Huybrechts I, Heyerick A, De Vriese S, et al. Microbial and dietary factors are associated with the equol producer phenotype in healthy postmenopausal women. JOURNAL OF NUTRITION. 2007;137(10):2242–6.
MLA
Bolca, Selin, Sam Possemiers, Annelies Herregat, et al. “Microbial and Dietary Factors Are Associated with the Equol Producer Phenotype in Healthy Postmenopausal Women.” JOURNAL OF NUTRITION 137.10 (2007): 2242–2246. Print.
@article{866824,
  abstract     = {Equol, a microbial metabolite of daidzein, has been hypothesized as a clue to the effectiveness of soy and its isoflavones but is excreted by only 33\% of Caucasians. Microbial and dietary factors associated with the ability to harbor equol-producing bacteria were studied in a randomized dietary intervention trial with 100 healthy postmenopausal women. After a 4-d baseline period, subjects delivered first-void urine, fecal, and breath samples. During the 5-d treatment period, 3 portions of either soymilk or soy germ containing 28.51 and 37.99 mg isoflavone aglycone equivalents/portion, respectively, were administered daily, and on the last day, 24-h urine samples were collected. The urinary recoveries of genistein and daidzein from soymilk were significantly higher than those from soy germ tablets. Because the proportion of equol:(daidzein + metabolites) in the urine did not differ between the treatment groups, subjects were pooled and classified into poor, moderate, and strong equol producers based on this criterion. The strong equol producer phenotype correlated negatively [in vivo, r = -0.478 (-0.256 to -0.893), P = 0.021; in vitro, r = -0.576 (-0.350 to -0.949), P = 0.030] with Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale counts and positively [in vivo, r = 1158 (0.971-1.380), P = 0.048; in vitro, r = 1.156 (1.007-1.327), P = 0.039] with the abundance of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Furthermore, persons with a higher PUFA [in vivo, r = 2.150 (1.058-4.371), P = 0.034; in vitro, r = 2.131 (1.144-3.967), P = 0.017] and alcohol [in vivo, r = 1.166 (0.721-1.887), P = 0.050, in vitro, r = 1.850 (1.215-2.817), P = 0.004] intake were more likely to be strong equol producers. Finally, we validated the daidzein metabolism by fecal cultures as screening assay to identify equol producers without dietary intervention.},
  author       = {Bolca, Selin and Possemiers, Sam and Herregat, Annelies and Huybrechts, Inge and Heyerick, Arne and De Vriese, Stephanie and Verbruggen, Marian and Depypere, Herman and De Keukeleire, Denis and Bracke, Marc and De Henauw, Stefaan and Verstraete, Willy and Van de Wiele, Tom},
  issn         = {0022-3166},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF NUTRITION},
  keyword      = {PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN,GUT MICROFLORA,BREAST-CANCER,HABITUAL DIET,SOY,ISOFLAVONES,PHYTOESTROGENS,EXCRETION,METABOLISM,BIOAVAILABILITY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {10},
  pages        = {2242--2246},
  title        = {Microbial and dietary factors are associated with the equol producer phenotype in healthy postmenopausal women},
  volume       = {137},
  year         = {2007},
}

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