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The effect of HF-rTMS over the left DLPFC on stress regulation as measured by cortisol and heart rate variability

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Abstract
The prefrontal cortex, and especially the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex (DLPFC), plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis under stressful situations. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that a sustained DLPFC activation is associated with adaptive stress regulation in anticipation of a stressful event, leading to a reduced stress-induced amygdala response, and facilitating the confrontation with the stressor. However, studies using experimental manipulation of the activity of the DLPFC before a stressor are scarce, and more research is needed to understand the specific role of this brain area in the stress-induced physiological response. This pre-registered study investigated the effect on stress regulation of a single excitatory high frequency (versus sham) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) session over the left DLPFC applied before the Trier Social Stress Test in 75 healthy young women (M = 21.05, SD = 2.60). Heart rate variability (HRV) and salivary cortisol were assessed throughout the experimental protocol. The active HFrTMS and the sham group showed a similar cognitive appraisal of the stress task. No differences in HRV were observed during both the anticipation and the actual confrontation with the stress task and therefore, our results did not reflect DLPFC-related adaptive anticipatory adjustments. Importantly, participants in the active HF-rTMS group showed a lower cortisol response to stress. The effect of left prefrontal HF-rTMS on the stress system provides further critical experimental evidence for the inhibitory role played by the DLPFC in the regulation of the HPA axis.
Keywords
Behavioral Neuroscience, Endocrinology, Endocrine and Autonomic Systems, HF-rTMS, HPA axis, Stress, Cortisol, HRV, TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION, UNDER-THE-CURVE, PSYCHOSOCIAL STRESS, HPA-AXIS, INTERINDIVIDUAL VARIABILITY, NEUROENDOCRINE RESPONSES, SALIVARY CORTISOL, SELF-ESTEEM, SESSION, DEPRESSION

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Citation

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MLA
Pulópulos Tripiana, Matias, et al. “The Effect of HF-RTMS over the Left DLPFC on Stress Regulation as Measured by Cortisol and Heart Rate Variability.” HORMONES AND BEHAVIOR, vol. 124, 2020, doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2020.104803.
APA
Pulópulos Tripiana, M., Schmausser, M., De Smet, S., Vanderhasselt, M.-A., Baliyan, S., Venero, C., … De Raedt, R. (2020). The effect of HF-rTMS over the left DLPFC on stress regulation as measured by cortisol and heart rate variability. HORMONES AND BEHAVIOR, 124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2020.104803
Chicago author-date
Pulópulos Tripiana, Matias, Maximilian Schmausser, Stefanie De Smet, Marie-Anne Vanderhasselt, Shishir Baliyan, César Venero, Chris Baeken, and Rudi De Raedt. 2020. “The Effect of HF-RTMS over the Left DLPFC on Stress Regulation as Measured by Cortisol and Heart Rate Variability.” HORMONES AND BEHAVIOR 124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2020.104803.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Pulópulos Tripiana, Matias, Maximilian Schmausser, Stefanie De Smet, Marie-Anne Vanderhasselt, Shishir Baliyan, César Venero, Chris Baeken, and Rudi De Raedt. 2020. “The Effect of HF-RTMS over the Left DLPFC on Stress Regulation as Measured by Cortisol and Heart Rate Variability.” HORMONES AND BEHAVIOR 124. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2020.104803.
Vancouver
1.
Pulópulos Tripiana M, Schmausser M, De Smet S, Vanderhasselt M-A, Baliyan S, Venero C, et al. The effect of HF-rTMS over the left DLPFC on stress regulation as measured by cortisol and heart rate variability. HORMONES AND BEHAVIOR. 2020;124.
IEEE
[1]
M. Pulópulos Tripiana et al., “The effect of HF-rTMS over the left DLPFC on stress regulation as measured by cortisol and heart rate variability,” HORMONES AND BEHAVIOR, vol. 124, 2020.
@article{8668218,
  abstract     = {{The prefrontal cortex, and especially the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex (DLPFC), plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis under stressful situations. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that a sustained DLPFC activation is associated with adaptive stress regulation in anticipation of a stressful event, leading to a reduced stress-induced amygdala response, and facilitating the confrontation with the stressor. However, studies using experimental manipulation of the activity of the DLPFC before a stressor are scarce, and more research is needed to understand the specific role of this brain area in the stress-induced physiological response. This pre-registered study investigated the effect on stress regulation of a single excitatory high frequency (versus sham) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) session over the left DLPFC applied before the Trier Social Stress Test in 75 healthy young women (M = 21.05, SD = 2.60). Heart rate variability (HRV) and salivary cortisol were assessed throughout the experimental protocol. The active HFrTMS and the sham group showed a similar cognitive appraisal of the stress task. No differences in HRV were observed during both the anticipation and the actual confrontation with the stress task and therefore, our results did not reflect DLPFC-related adaptive anticipatory adjustments. Importantly, participants in the active HF-rTMS group showed a lower cortisol response to stress. The effect of left prefrontal HF-rTMS on the stress system provides further critical experimental evidence for the inhibitory role played by the DLPFC in the regulation of the HPA axis.}},
  articleno    = {{104803}},
  author       = {{Pulópulos Tripiana, Matias and Schmausser, Maximilian and De Smet, Stefanie and Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne and Baliyan, Shishir and Venero, César and Baeken, Chris and De Raedt, Rudi}},
  issn         = {{0018-506X}},
  journal      = {{HORMONES AND BEHAVIOR}},
  keywords     = {{Behavioral Neuroscience,Endocrinology,Endocrine and Autonomic Systems,HF-rTMS,HPA axis,Stress,Cortisol,HRV,TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION,UNDER-THE-CURVE,PSYCHOSOCIAL STRESS,HPA-AXIS,INTERINDIVIDUAL VARIABILITY,NEUROENDOCRINE RESPONSES,SALIVARY CORTISOL,SELF-ESTEEM,SESSION,DEPRESSION}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{9}},
  title        = {{The effect of HF-rTMS over the left DLPFC on stress regulation as measured by cortisol and heart rate variability}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2020.104803}},
  volume       = {{124}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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