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COPA : highly cost-effective power back-up for green datacenters

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Abstract
Traditional datacenters employ costly diesel generators (DG) and uninterrupted power supplies (UPS) to back up power. However, some or even all racks of a green datacenter can still be powered by renewable energy during grid power outages. This makes the utilization of the DGs and UPSs in green datacenters significantly lower than in traditional datacenters. In this paper, we propose a highly cost-effective power back-up (COPA) approach for green datacenters by leveraging the availability characteristics of renewable energy as well as grid power outages. COPA contributes three new techniques. The first technique, called least UPS capacity planning, determines the least rated power capability and runtime of the UPSs to guarantee the normal operations of a green datacenter during grid power outages. The second technique, named cooperative UPS/renewable power supply, employs UPS and renewable energy at the same time to supply power to each rack when grid power fails. The last one, dubbed renewable-energy-aware dynamic power management, controls the power consumption dynamically based on the available capacity of renewable energy and UPS. We build an experimental cluster consisting of 10 servers, and use four representative benchmarks as well as verified data about the availability characteristics of solar and wind energy to evaluate COPA. The results show that COPA reduces 47 percent and 70 percent of the power back-up cost for a solar energy powered datacenter and a wind energy powered datacenter, respectively. Moreover, COPA guarantees the applications Service Level Agreement (SLA) for at least 20 minutes (over 79 percent outages) and 56 minutes on average while enabling the back-up power to last for at least 2 hours and for 3 hours on average, which cannot be achieved by other under-provisioning power back-up approaches.
Keywords
RENEWABLE ENERGY, MANAGEMENT, Uninterruptible power systems, Renewable energy sources, Power system, reliability, Green products, Power supplies, Power system management, Switches, Datacenter power backup, renewable energy, cooperative power, distribution, dynamic power management

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MLA
Yin, Yan, et al. “COPA : Highly Cost-Effective Power Back-up for Green Datacenters.” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS, vol. 31, no. 4, 2020, pp. 967–80, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2019.2948336.
APA
Yin, Y., Wu, J., Zhou, X., Eeckhout, L., Qouneh, A., Li, T., & Yu, Z. (2020). COPA : highly cost-effective power back-up for green datacenters. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS, 31(4), 967–980. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPDS.2019.2948336
Chicago author-date
Yin, Yan, Junmin Wu, Xu Zhou, Lieven Eeckhout, Amer Qouneh, Tao Li, and Zhibin Yu. 2020. “COPA : Highly Cost-Effective Power Back-up for Green Datacenters.” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS 31 (4): 967–80. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPDS.2019.2948336.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Yin, Yan, Junmin Wu, Xu Zhou, Lieven Eeckhout, Amer Qouneh, Tao Li, and Zhibin Yu. 2020. “COPA : Highly Cost-Effective Power Back-up for Green Datacenters.” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS 31 (4): 967–980. doi:10.1109/TPDS.2019.2948336.
Vancouver
1.
Yin Y, Wu J, Zhou X, Eeckhout L, Qouneh A, Li T, et al. COPA : highly cost-effective power back-up for green datacenters. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS. 2020;31(4):967–80.
IEEE
[1]
Y. Yin et al., “COPA : highly cost-effective power back-up for green datacenters,” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 967–980, 2020.
@article{8668173,
  abstract     = {Traditional datacenters employ costly diesel generators (DG) and uninterrupted power supplies (UPS) to back up power. However, some or even all racks of a green datacenter can still be powered by renewable energy during grid power outages. This makes the utilization of the DGs and UPSs in green datacenters significantly lower than in traditional datacenters. In this paper, we propose a highly cost-effective power back-up (COPA) approach for green datacenters by leveraging the availability characteristics of renewable energy as well as grid power outages. COPA contributes three new techniques. The first technique, called least UPS capacity planning, determines the least rated power capability and runtime of the UPSs to guarantee the normal operations of a green datacenter during grid power outages. The second technique, named cooperative UPS/renewable power supply, employs UPS and renewable energy at the same time to supply power to each rack when grid power fails. The last one, dubbed renewable-energy-aware dynamic power management, controls the power consumption dynamically based on the available capacity of renewable energy and UPS. We build an experimental cluster consisting of 10 servers, and use four representative benchmarks as well as verified data about the availability characteristics of solar and wind energy to evaluate COPA. The results show that COPA reduces 47 percent and 70 percent of the power back-up cost for a solar energy powered datacenter and a wind energy powered datacenter, respectively. Moreover, COPA guarantees the applications Service Level Agreement (SLA) for at least 20 minutes (over 79 percent outages) and 56 minutes on average while enabling the back-up power to last for at least 2 hours and for 3 hours on average, which cannot be achieved by other under-provisioning power back-up approaches.},
  author       = {Yin, Yan and Wu, Junmin and Zhou, Xu and Eeckhout, Lieven and Qouneh, Amer and Li, Tao and Yu, Zhibin},
  issn         = {1045-9219},
  journal      = {IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS},
  keywords     = {RENEWABLE ENERGY,MANAGEMENT,Uninterruptible power systems,Renewable energy sources,Power system,reliability,Green products,Power supplies,Power system management,Switches,Datacenter power backup,renewable energy,cooperative power,distribution,dynamic power management},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {967--980},
  title        = {COPA : highly cost-effective power back-up for green datacenters},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPDS.2019.2948336},
  volume       = {31},
  year         = {2020},
}

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