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Investigation of two fermi-LAT gamma-ray blazars coincident with high-energy neutrinos detected by IceCube

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Abstract
After the identification of the gamma-ray blazar TXS 0506+056 as the first compelling IceCube neutrino source candidate, we perform a systematic analysis of all high-energy neutrino events satisfying the IceCube realtime trigger criteria. We find one additional known gamma-ray source, the blazar GB6 J1040+0617, in spatial coincidence with a neutrino in this sample. The chance probability of this coincidence is 30% after trial correction. For the first time, we present a systematic study of the gamma-ray flux, spectral and optical variability, and multiwavelength behavior of GB6 J1040+0617 and compare it to TXS 0506+056. We find that TXS 0506+056 shows strong flux variability in the Fermi-Large Area Telescope gamma-ray band, being in an active state around the arrival of IceCube-170922A, but in a low state during the archival IceCube neutrino flare in 2014/15. In both cases the spectral shape is statistically compatible (<= 2 sigma) with the average spectrum showing no indication of a significant relative increase of a high-energy component. While the association of GB6 J1040+0617 with the neutrino is consistent with background expectations, the source appears to be a plausible neutrino source candidate based on its energetics and multiwavelength features, namely a bright optical flare and modestly increased gamma-ray activity. Finding one or two neutrinos originating from gamma-ray blazars in the given sample of high-energy neutrinos is consistent with previously derived limits of neutrino emission from gamma-ray blazars, indicating the sources of the majority of cosmic high-energy neutrinos remain unknown.
Keywords
COSMIC-RAYS, PARTICLE-ACCELERATION, HADRONIC MODEL, QUASARS, CATALOG, COUNTERPARTS, SELECTION, SAMPLE, M87

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MLA
Garrappa, S., et al. “Investigation of Two Fermi-LAT Gamma-Ray Blazars Coincident with High-Energy Neutrinos Detected by IceCube.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, vol. 880, no. 2, 2019, doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab2ada.
APA
Garrappa, S., Buson, S., Franckowiak, A., Shappee, B. J., Beacom, J. F., Dong, S., … Yuan, T. (2019). Investigation of two fermi-LAT gamma-ray blazars coincident with high-energy neutrinos detected by IceCube. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 880(2). https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab2ada
Chicago author-date
Garrappa, S., S. Buson, A. Franckowiak, B. J. Shappee, J. F. Beacom, S. Dong, T. W-S Holoien, et al. 2019. “Investigation of Two Fermi-LAT Gamma-Ray Blazars Coincident with High-Energy Neutrinos Detected by IceCube.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 880 (2). https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab2ada.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Garrappa, S., S. Buson, A. Franckowiak, B. J. Shappee, J. F. Beacom, S. Dong, T. W-S Holoien, C. S. Kochanek, J. L. Prieto, K. Z. Stanek, T. A. Thompson, M. G. Aartsen, M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, C. Alispach, K. Andeen, T. Anderson, I Ansseau, G. Anton, C. Arguelles, J. Auffenberg, S. Axani, P. Backes, H. Bagherpour, X. Bai, A. Barbano, S. W. Barwick, V Baum, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, K-H Becker, J. Becker Tjus, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, D. Bindig, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, C. Bohm, M. Boerner, S. Boeser, O. Botner, E. Bourbeau, J. Bourbeau, F. Bradascio, J. Braun, H-P Bretz, S. Bron, J. Brostean-Kaiser, A. Burgman, R. S. Busse, T. Carver, C. Chen, E. Cheung, D. Chirkin, K. Clark, L. Classen, G. H. Collin, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, D. F. Cowen, R. Cross, P. Dave, J. P. A. M. de Andre, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, H. Dembinski, K. Deoskar, Sam De Ridder, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, M. de With, T. DeYoung, A. Diaz, J. C. Diaz-Velez, H. Dujmovic, M. Dunkman, E. Dvorak, B. Eberhardt, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, P. A. Evenson, S. Fahey, A. R. Fazely, J. Felde, K. Filimonov, C. Finley, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, L. Gerhardt, K. Ghorbani, T. Glauch, T. Gluesenkamp, A. Goldschmidt, J. G. Gonzalez, D. Grant, Z. Griffith, M. Guender, M. Guenduez, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, L. Halve, F. Halzen, K. Hanson, D. Hebecker, D. Heereman, K. Helbing, R. Hellauer, F. Henningsen, S. Hickford, J. Hignight, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, R. Hoffmann, T. Hoinka, B. Hokanson-Fasig, K. Hoshina, F. Huang, M. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Huennefeld, R. Hussain, S. In, N. Iovine, A. Ishihara, E. Jacobi, G. S. Japaridze, M. Jeong, K. Jero, B. J. P. Jones, W. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, U. Katz, M. Kauer, A. Keivani, J. L. Kelley, A. Kheirandish, J. Kim, T. Kintscher, J. Kiryluk, T. Kittler, S. R. Klein, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, L. Koepke, C. Kopper, S. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, M. Kowalski, K. Krings, G. Krueckl, N. Kulacz, S. Kunwar, N. Kurahashi, A. Kyriacou, Mathieu Labare, J. L. Lanfranchi, M. J. Larson, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, K. Leonard, M. Leuermann, Q. R. Liu, E. Lohfink, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, J. Lunemann, W. Luszczak, J. Madsen, G. Maggi, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, K. Mallot, S. Mancina, I. C. Maris, R. Maruyama, K. Mase, R. Maunu, K. Meagher, M. Medici, A. Medina, M. Meier, S. Meighen-Berger, T. Menne, G. Merino, T. Meures, S. Miarecki, J. Micallef, G. Momente, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, M. Moulai, R. Nagai, R. Nahnhauer, P. Nakarmi, U. Naumann, G. Neer, H. Niederhausen, S. C. Nowicki, D. R. Nygren, A. Obertacke Pollmann, A. Olivas, A. O’Murchadha, E. O’Sullivan, T. Palczewski, H. Pandya, V Pankova, D., N. Park, P. Peiffer, C. Perez de los Heros, D. Pieloth, E. Pinat, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, P. B. Price, G. T. Przybylski, C. Raab, A. Raissi, M. Rameez, L. Rauch, K. Rawlins, I. C. Rea, R. Reimann, B. Relethford, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, W. Rhode, M. Richman, S. Robertson, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, Dirk Ryckbosch, D. Rysewyk, I Safa, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, J. Sandroos, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, K. Satalecka, M. Schaufel, P. Schlunder, T. Schmidt, A. Schneider, J. Schneider, L. Schumacher, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, S. Seunarine, M. Silva, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, D. Soldin, M. Song, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, J. Stachurska, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, A. Stasik, R. Stein, J. Stettner, A. Steuer, T. Stezelberger, R. G. Stokstad, A. Stossl, N. L. Strotjohann, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, M. Sutherland, I Taboada, F. Tenholt, S. Ter-Antonyan, A. Terliuk, S. Tilav, L. Tomankova, C. Tonnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, M. Tselengidou, C. F. Tung, A. Turcati, R. Turcotte, C. F. Turley, B. Ty, E. Unger, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, M. Usner, J. Vandenbroucke, Ward Van Driessche, D. van Eijk, N. van Eijndhoven, Sander Vanheule, J. van Santen, Matthias Vraeghe, C. Walck, A. Wallace, M. Wallraff, N. Wandkowsky, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, M. J. Weiss, J. Weldert, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, S. Westerhoff, B. J. Whelan, N. Whitehorn, K. Wiebe, C. H. Wiebusch, L. Wille, D. R. Williams, L. Wills, M. Wolf, J. Wood, T. R. Wood, K. Woschnagg, G. Wrede, D. L. Xu, X. W. Xu, Y. Xu, J. P. Yanez, G. Yodh, S. Yoshida, and T. Yuan. 2019. “Investigation of Two Fermi-LAT Gamma-Ray Blazars Coincident with High-Energy Neutrinos Detected by IceCube.” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 880 (2). doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab2ada.
Vancouver
1.
Garrappa S, Buson S, Franckowiak A, Shappee BJ, Beacom JF, Dong S, et al. Investigation of two fermi-LAT gamma-ray blazars coincident with high-energy neutrinos detected by IceCube. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL. 2019;880(2).
IEEE
[1]
S. Garrappa et al., “Investigation of two fermi-LAT gamma-ray blazars coincident with high-energy neutrinos detected by IceCube,” ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, vol. 880, no. 2, 2019.
@article{8668167,
  abstract     = {After the identification of the gamma-ray blazar TXS 0506+056 as the first compelling IceCube neutrino source candidate, we perform a systematic analysis of all high-energy neutrino events satisfying the IceCube realtime trigger criteria. We find one additional known gamma-ray source, the blazar GB6 J1040+0617, in spatial coincidence with a neutrino in this sample. The chance probability of this coincidence is 30% after trial correction. For the first time, we present a systematic study of the gamma-ray flux, spectral and optical variability, and multiwavelength behavior of GB6 J1040+0617 and compare it to TXS 0506+056. We find that TXS 0506+056 shows strong flux variability in the Fermi-Large Area Telescope gamma-ray band, being in an active state around the arrival of IceCube-170922A, but in a low state during the archival IceCube neutrino flare in 2014/15. In both cases the spectral shape is statistically compatible (<= 2 sigma) with the average spectrum showing no indication of a significant relative increase of a high-energy component. While the association of GB6 J1040+0617 with the neutrino is consistent with background expectations, the source appears to be a plausible neutrino source candidate based on its energetics and multiwavelength features, namely a bright optical flare and modestly increased gamma-ray activity. Finding one or two neutrinos originating from gamma-ray blazars in the given sample of high-energy neutrinos is consistent with previously derived limits of neutrino emission from gamma-ray blazars, indicating the sources of the majority of cosmic high-energy neutrinos remain unknown.},
  articleno    = {103},
  author       = {Garrappa, S. and Buson, S. and Franckowiak, A. and Shappee, B. J. and Beacom, J. F. and Dong, S. and Holoien, T. W-S and Kochanek, C. S. and Prieto, J. L. and Stanek, K. Z. and Thompson, T. A. and Aartsen, M. G. and Ackermann, M. and Adams, J. and Aguilar, J. A. and Ahlers, M. and Ahrens, M. and Alispach, C. and Andeen, K. and Anderson, T. and Ansseau, I and Anton, G. and Arguelles, C. and Auffenberg, J. and Axani, S. and Backes, P. and Bagherpour, H. and Bai, X. and Barbano, A. and Barwick, S. W. and Baum, V and Bay, R. and Beatty, J. J. and Becker, K-H and Tjus, J. Becker and BenZvi, S. and Berley, D. and Bernardini, E. and Besson, D. Z. and Binder, G. and Bindig, D. and Blaufuss, E. and Blot, S. and Bohm, C. and Boerner, M. and Boeser, S. and Botner, O. and Bourbeau, E. and Bourbeau, J. and Bradascio, F. and Braun, J. and Bretz, H-P and Bron, S. and Brostean-Kaiser, J. and Burgman, A. and Busse, R. S. and Carver, T. and Chen, C. and Cheung, E. and Chirkin, D. and Clark, K. and Classen, L. and Collin, G. H. and Conrad, J. M. and Coppin, P. and Correa, P. and Cowen, D. F. and Cross, R. and Dave, P. and de Andre, J. P. A. M. and De Clercq, C. and DeLaunay, J. J. and Dembinski, H. and Deoskar, K. and De Ridder, Sam and Desiati, P. and de Vries, K. D. and de Wasseige, G. and de With, M. and DeYoung, T. and Diaz, A. and Diaz-Velez, J. C. and Dujmovic, H. and Dunkman, M. and Dvorak, E. and Eberhardt, B. and Ehrhardt, T. and Eller, P. and Evenson, P. A. and Fahey, S. and Fazely, A. R. and Felde, J. and Filimonov, K. and Finley, C. and Friedman, E. and Fritz, A. and Gaisser, T. K. and Gallagher, J. and Ganster, E. and Gerhardt, L. and Ghorbani, K. and Glauch, T. and Gluesenkamp, T. and Goldschmidt, A. and Gonzalez, J. G. and Grant, D. and Griffith, Z. and Guender, M. and Guenduez, M. and Haack, C. and Hallgren, A. and Halve, L. and Halzen, F. and Hanson, K. and Hebecker, D. and Heereman, D. and Helbing, K. and Hellauer, R. and Henningsen, F. and Hickford, S. and Hignight, J. and Hill, G. C. and Hoffman, K. D. and Hoffmann, R. and Hoinka, T. and Hokanson-Fasig, B. and Hoshina, K. and Huang, F. and Huber, M. and Hultqvist, K. and Huennefeld, M. and Hussain, R. and In, S. and Iovine, N. and Ishihara, A. and Jacobi, E. and Japaridze, G. S. and Jeong, M. and Jero, K. and Jones, B. J. P. and Kang, W. and Kappes, A. and Kappesser, D. and Karg, T. and Karl, M. and Karle, A. and Katz, U. and Kauer, M. and Keivani, A. and Kelley, J. L. and Kheirandish, A. and Kim, J. and Kintscher, T. and Kiryluk, J. and Kittler, T. and Klein, S. R. and Koirala, R. and Kolanoski, H. and Koepke, L. and Kopper, C. and Kopper, S. and Koskinen, D. J. and Kowalski, M. and Krings, K. and Krueckl, G. and Kulacz, N. and Kunwar, S. and Kurahashi, N. and Kyriacou, A. and Labare, Mathieu and Lanfranchi, J. L. and Larson, M. J. and Lauber, F. and Lazar, J. P. and Leonard, K. and Leuermann, M. and Liu, Q. R. and Lohfink, E. and Mariscal, C. J. Lozano and Lu, L. and Lucarelli, F. and Lunemann, J. and Luszczak, W. and Madsen, J. and Maggi, G. and Mahn, K. B. M. and Makino, Y. and Mallot, K. and Mancina, S. and Maris, I. C. and Maruyama, R. and Mase, K. and Maunu, R. and Meagher, K. and Medici, M. and Medina, A. and Meier, M. and Meighen-Berger, S. and Menne, T. and Merino, G. and Meures, T. and Miarecki, S. and Micallef, J. and Momente, G. and Montaruli, T. and Moore, R. W. and Moulai, M. and Nagai, R. and Nahnhauer, R. and Nakarmi, P. and Naumann, U. and Neer, G. and Niederhausen, H. and Nowicki, S. C. and Nygren, D. R. and Pollmann, A. Obertacke and Olivas, A. and O'Murchadha, A. and O'Sullivan, E. and Palczewski, T. and Pandya, H. and Pankova, D., V and Park, N. and Peiffer, P. and de los Heros, C. Perez and Pieloth, D. and Pinat, E. and Pizzuto, A. and Plum, M. and Price, P. B. and Przybylski, G. T. and Raab, C. and Raissi, A. and Rameez, M. and Rauch, L. and Rawlins, K. and Rea, I. C. and Reimann, R. and Relethford, B. and Renzi, G. and Resconi, E. and Rhode, W. and Richman, M. and Robertson, S. and Rongen, M. and Rott, C. and Ruhe, T. and Ryckbosch, Dirk and Rysewyk, D. and Safa, I and Herrera, S. E. Sanchez and Sandrock, A. and Sandroos, J. and Santander, M. and Sarkar, S. and Satalecka, K. and Schaufel, M. and Schlunder, P. and Schmidt, T. and Schneider, A. and Schneider, J. and Schumacher, L. and Sclafani, S. and Seckel, D. and Seunarine, S. and Silva, M. and Snihur, R. and Soedingrekso, J. and Soldin, D. and Song, M. and Spiczak, G. M. and Spiering, C. and Stachurska, J. and Stamatikos, M. and Stanev, T. and Stasik, A. and Stein, R. and Stettner, J. and Steuer, A. and Stezelberger, T. and Stokstad, R. G. and Stossl, A. and Strotjohann, N. L. and Stuttard, T. and Sullivan, G. W. and Sutherland, M. and Taboada, I and Tenholt, F. and Ter-Antonyan, S. and Terliuk, A. and Tilav, S. and Tomankova, L. and Tonnis, C. and Toscano, S. and Tosi, D. and Tselengidou, M. and Tung, C. F. and Turcati, A. and Turcotte, R. and Turley, C. F. and Ty, B. and Unger, E. and Elorrieta, M. A. Unland and Usner, M. and Vandenbroucke, J. and Van Driessche, Ward and van Eijk, D. and van Eijndhoven, N. and Vanheule, Sander and van Santen, J. and Vraeghe, Matthias and Walck, C. and Wallace, A. and Wallraff, M. and Wandkowsky, N. and Watson, T. B. and Weaver, C. and Weiss, M. J. and Weldert, J. and Wendt, C. and Werthebach, J. and Westerhoff, S. and Whelan, B. J. and Whitehorn, N. and Wiebe, K. and Wiebusch, C. H. and Wille, L. and Williams, D. R. and Wills, L. and Wolf, M. and Wood, J. and Wood, T. R. and Woschnagg, K. and Wrede, G. and Xu, D. L. and Xu, X. W. and Xu, Y. and Yanez, J. P. and Yodh, G. and Yoshida, S. and Yuan, T.},
  issn         = {0004-637X},
  journal      = {ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL},
  keywords     = {COSMIC-RAYS,PARTICLE-ACCELERATION,HADRONIC MODEL,QUASARS,CATALOG,COUNTERPARTS,SELECTION,SAMPLE,M87},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {17},
  title        = {Investigation of two fermi-LAT gamma-ray blazars coincident with high-energy neutrinos detected by IceCube},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab2ada},
  volume       = {880},
  year         = {2019},
}

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