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Cosmic ray spectrum and composition from PeV to EeV using 3 years of data from IceTop and IceCube

(2019) PHYSICAL REVIEW D. 100(8).
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Abstract
We report on measurements of the all-particle cosmic ray energy spectrum and composition in the PeV to EeV energy range using 3 years of data from the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. The IceTop detector measures cosmic ray induced air showers on the surface of the ice, from which the energy spectrum of cosmic rays is determined by making additional assumptions about the mass composition. A separate measurement is performed when IceTop data are analyzed in coincidence with the high-energy muon energy loss information from the deep in-ice IceCube detector. In this measurement, both the spectrum and the mass composition of the primary cosmic rays are simultaneously reconstructed using a neural network trained on observables from both detectors. The performance and relative advantages of these two distinct analyses are discussed, including the systematic uncertainties and the dependence on the hadronic interaction models, and both all-particle spectra as well as individual spectra for elemental groups are presented.
Keywords
ENERGY-SPECTRUM

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MLA
Aartsen, M. G., et al. “Cosmic Ray Spectrum and Composition from PeV to EeV Using 3 Years of Data from IceTop and IceCube.” PHYSICAL REVIEW D, vol. 100, no. 8, 2019, doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.100.082002.
APA
Aartsen, M. G., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., Ahrens, M., … Zoecklein, M. (2019). Cosmic ray spectrum and composition from PeV to EeV using 3 years of data from IceTop and IceCube. PHYSICAL REVIEW D, 100(8). https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.100.082002
Chicago author-date
Aartsen, M. G., M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, C. Alispach, et al. 2019. “Cosmic Ray Spectrum and Composition from PeV to EeV Using 3 Years of Data from IceTop and IceCube.” PHYSICAL REVIEW D 100 (8). https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.100.082002.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Aartsen, M. G., M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, C. Alispach, K. Andeen, T. Anderson, I Ansseau, G. Anton, C. Arguelles, J. Auffenberg, S. Axani, P. Backes, H. Bagherpour, X. Bai, A. Barbano, S. W. Barwick, V Baum, S. Baur, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, K-H Becker, J. Becker Tjus, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, D. Bindig, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, C. Bohm, M. Boerner, S. Boeser, O. Botner, J. Boettcher, E. Bourbeau, J. Bourbeau, F. Bradascio, J. Braun, H-P Bretz, S. Bron, J. Brostean-Kaiser, A. Burgman, J. Buscher, R. S. Busse, T. Carver, C. Chen, E. Cheung, D. Chirkin, K. Clark, L. Classen, G. H. Collin, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, D. F. Cowen, R. Cross, P. Dave, J. P. A. M. de Andre, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, H. Dembinski, K. Deoskar, Sam De Ridder, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, M. de With, T. DeYoung, A. Diaz, J. C. Diaz-Velez, H. Dujmovic, M. Dunkman, E. Dvorak, B. Eberhardt, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, P. A. Evenson, S. Fahey, A. R. Fazely, J. Felde, Tom Feusels, K. Filimonov, C. Finley, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, S. Garrappa, L. Gerhardt, K. Ghorbani, T. Glauch, T. Gluesenkamp, A. Goldschmidt, J. G. Gonzalez, D. Grant, Z. Griffith, M. Guender, M. Guenduez, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, L. Halve, F. Halzen, K. Hanson, D. Hebecker, D. Heereman, P. Heix, K. Helbing, R. Hellauer, F. Henningsen, S. Hickford, J. Hignight, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, R. Hoffmann, T. Hoinka, B. Hokanson-Fasig, K. Hoshina, F. Huang, M. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Huennefeld, R. Hussain, S. In, N. Iovine, A. Ishihara, E. Jacobi, G. S. Japaridze, M. Jeong, K. Jero, B. J. P. Jones, F. Jonske, R. Joppe, W. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, U. Katz, M. Kauer, J. L. Kelley, A. Kheirandish, J. Kim, T. Kintscher, J. Kiryluk, T. Kittler, S. R. Klein, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, L. Koepke, C. Kopper, S. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, M. Kowalski, K. Krings, G. Krueckl, N. Kulacz, S. Kunwar, N. Kurahashi, A. Kyriacou, Mathieu Labare, J. L. Lanfranchi, M. J. Larson, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, K. Leonard, M. Leuermann, Q. R. Liu, E. Lohfink, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, J. Lunemann, W. Luszczak, J. Madsen, G. Maggi, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, P. Mallik, K. Mallot, S. Mancina, I. C. Mari, R. Maruyama, K. Mase, R. Maunu, K. Meagher, M. Medici, A. Medina, M. Meier, S. Meighen-Berger, T. Menne, G. Merino, T. Meures, S. Miarecki, J. Micallef, G. Momente, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, R. Morse, M. Moulai, P. Muth, R. Nagai, R. Nahnhauer, P. Nakarmi, U. Naumann, G. Neer, H. Niederhausen, S. C. Nowicki, D. R. Nygren, A. Obertacke Pollmann, A. Olivas, A. O’Murchadha, E. O’Sullivan, T. Palczewski, H. Pandya, V Pankova, D., N. Park, P. Peiffer, C. Perez de los Heros, S. Philippen, D. Pieloth, E. Pinat, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, Alessio Porcelli, P. B. Price, G. T. Przybylski, C. Raab, A. Raissi, M. Rameez, L. Rauch, K. Rawlins, I. C. Rea, R. Reimann, B. Relethford, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, W. Rhode, M. Richman, S. Robertson, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, Dirk Ryckbosch, D. Rysewyk, I Safa, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, J. Sandroos, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, K. Satalecka, M. Schaufel, P. Schlunder, T. Schmidt, A. Schneider, J. Schneider, L. Schumacher, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, S. Seunarine, S. Shefali, M. Silva, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, D. Soldin, M. Song, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, J. Stachurska, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, A. Stasik, R. Stein, J. Stettner, A. Steuer, T. Stezelberger, R. G. Stokstad, A. Stossl, N. L. Strotjohann, T. Stuerwald, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, M. Sutherland, I Taboada, F. Tenholt, S. Ter-Antonyan, A. Terliuk, S. Tilav, L. Tomankova, C. Tonnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, M. Tselengidou, C. F. Tung, A. Turcati, R. Turcotte, C. F. Turley, B. Ty, E. Unger, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, M. Usner, J. Vandenbroucke, Ward Van Driessche, D. van Eijk, N. van Eijndhoven, Sander Vanheule, J. van Santen, Matthias Vraeghe, C. Walck, A. Wallace, M. Wallraff, N. Wandkowsky, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, M. J. Weiss, J. Weldert, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, S. Westerhoff, B. J. Whelan, N. Whitehorn, K. Wiebe, C. H. Wiebusch, L. Wille, D. R. Williams, L. Wills, M. Wolf, J. Wood, T. R. Wood, K. Woschnagg, G. Wrede, D. L. Xu, X. W. Xu, Y. Xu, J. P. Yanez, G. Yodh, S. Yoshida, T. Yuan, and M. Zoecklein. 2019. “Cosmic Ray Spectrum and Composition from PeV to EeV Using 3 Years of Data from IceTop and IceCube.” PHYSICAL REVIEW D 100 (8). doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.100.082002.
Vancouver
1.
Aartsen MG, Ackermann M, Adams J, Aguilar JA, Ahlers M, Ahrens M, et al. Cosmic ray spectrum and composition from PeV to EeV using 3 years of data from IceTop and IceCube. PHYSICAL REVIEW D. 2019;100(8).
IEEE
[1]
M. G. Aartsen et al., “Cosmic ray spectrum and composition from PeV to EeV using 3 years of data from IceTop and IceCube,” PHYSICAL REVIEW D, vol. 100, no. 8, 2019.
@article{8668164,
  abstract     = {We report on measurements of the all-particle cosmic ray energy spectrum and composition in the PeV to EeV energy range using 3 years of data from the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. The IceTop detector measures cosmic ray induced air showers on the surface of the ice, from which the energy spectrum of cosmic rays is determined by making additional assumptions about the mass composition. A separate measurement is performed when IceTop data are analyzed in coincidence with the high-energy muon energy loss information from the deep in-ice IceCube detector. In this measurement, both the spectrum and the mass composition of the primary cosmic rays are simultaneously reconstructed using a neural network trained on observables from both detectors. The performance and relative advantages of these two distinct analyses are discussed, including the systematic uncertainties and the dependence on the hadronic interaction models, and both all-particle spectra as well as individual spectra for elemental groups are presented.},
  articleno    = {082002},
  author       = {Aartsen, M. G. and Ackermann, M. and Adams, J. and Aguilar, J. A. and Ahlers, M. and Ahrens, M. and Alispach, C. and Andeen, K. and Anderson, T. and Ansseau, I and Anton, G. and Arguelles, C. and Auffenberg, J. and Axani, S. and Backes, P. and Bagherpour, H. and Bai, X. and Barbano, A. and Barwick, S. W. and Baum, V and Baur, S. and Bay, R. and Beatty, J. J. and Becker, K-H and Tjus, J. Becker and BenZvi, S. and Berley, D. and Bernardini, E. and Besson, D. Z. and Binder, G. and Bindig, D. and Blaufuss, E. and Blot, S. and Bohm, C. and Boerner, M. and Boeser, S. and Botner, O. and Boettcher, J. and Bourbeau, E. and Bourbeau, J. and Bradascio, F. and Braun, J. and Bretz, H-P and Bron, S. and Brostean-Kaiser, J. and Burgman, A. and Buscher, J. and Busse, R. S. and Carver, T. and Chen, C. and Cheung, E. and Chirkin, D. and Clark, K. and Classen, L. and Collin, G. H. and Conrad, J. M. and Coppin, P. and Correa, P. and Cowen, D. F. and Cross, R. and Dave, P. and de Andre, J. P. A. M. and De Clercq, C. and DeLaunay, J. J. and Dembinski, H. and Deoskar, K. and De Ridder, Sam and Desiati, P. and de Vries, K. D. and de Wasseige, G. and de With, M. and DeYoung, T. and Diaz, A. and Diaz-Velez, J. C. and Dujmovic, H. and Dunkman, M. and Dvorak, E. and Eberhardt, B. and Ehrhardt, T. and Eller, P. and Evenson, P. A. and Fahey, S. and Fazely, A. R. and Felde, J. and Feusels, Tom and Filimonov, K. and Finley, C. and Franckowiak, A. and Friedman, E. and Fritz, A. and Gaisser, T. K. and Gallagher, J. and Ganster, E. and Garrappa, S. and Gerhardt, L. and Ghorbani, K. and Glauch, T. and Gluesenkamp, T. and Goldschmidt, A. and Gonzalez, J. G. and Grant, D. and Griffith, Z. and Guender, M. and Guenduez, M. and Haack, C. and Hallgren, A. and Halve, L. and Halzen, F. and Hanson, K. and Hebecker, D. and Heereman, D. and Heix, P. and Helbing, K. and Hellauer, R. and Henningsen, F. and Hickford, S. and Hignight, J. and Hill, G. C. and Hoffman, K. D. and Hoffmann, R. and Hoinka, T. and Hokanson-Fasig, B. and Hoshina, K. and Huang, F. and Huber, M. and Hultqvist, K. and Huennefeld, M. and Hussain, R. and In, S. and Iovine, N. and Ishihara, A. and Jacobi, E. and Japaridze, G. S. and Jeong, M. and Jero, K. and Jones, B. J. P. and Jonske, F. and Joppe, R. and Kang, W. and Kappes, A. and Kappesser, D. and Karg, T. and Karl, M. and Karle, A. and Katz, U. and Kauer, M. and Kelley, J. L. and Kheirandish, A. and Kim, J. and Kintscher, T. and Kiryluk, J. and Kittler, T. and Klein, S. R. and Koirala, R. and Kolanoski, H. and Koepke, L. and Kopper, C. and Kopper, S. and Koskinen, D. J. and Kowalski, M. and Krings, K. and Krueckl, G. and Kulacz, N. and Kunwar, S. and Kurahashi, N. and Kyriacou, A. and Labare, Mathieu and Lanfranchi, J. L. and Larson, M. J. and Lauber, F. and Lazar, J. P. and Leonard, K. and Leuermann, M. and Liu, Q. R. and Lohfink, E. and Mariscal, C. J. Lozano and Lu, L. and Lucarelli, F. and Lunemann, J. and Luszczak, W. and Madsen, J. and Maggi, G. and Mahn, K. B. M. and Makino, Y. and Mallik, P. and Mallot, K. and Mancina, S. and Mari, I. C. and Maruyama, R. and Mase, K. and Maunu, R. and Meagher, K. and Medici, M. and Medina, A. and Meier, M. and Meighen-Berger, S. and Menne, T. and Merino, G. and Meures, T. and Miarecki, S. and Micallef, J. and Momente, G. and Montaruli, T. and Moore, R. W. and Morse, R. and Moulai, M. and Muth, P. and Nagai, R. and Nahnhauer, R. and Nakarmi, P. and Naumann, U. and Neer, G. and Niederhausen, H. and Nowicki, S. C. and Nygren, D. R. and Pollmann, A. Obertacke and Olivas, A. and O'Murchadha, A. and O'Sullivan, E. and Palczewski, T. and Pandya, H. and Pankova, D., V and Park, N. and Peiffer, P. and de los Heros, C. Perez and Philippen, S. and Pieloth, D. and Pinat, E. and Pizzuto, A. and Plum, M. and Porcelli, Alessio and Price, P. B. and Przybylski, G. T. and Raab, C. and Raissi, A. and Rameez, M. and Rauch, L. and Rawlins, K. and Rea, I. C. and Reimann, R. and Relethford, B. and Renzi, G. and Resconi, E. and Rhode, W. and Richman, M. and Robertson, S. and Rongen, M. and Rott, C. and Ruhe, T. and Ryckbosch, Dirk and Rysewyk, D. and Safa, I and Herrera, S. E. Sanchez and Sandrock, A. and Sandroos, J. and Santander, M. and Sarkar, S. and Satalecka, K. and Schaufel, M. and Schlunder, P. and Schmidt, T. and Schneider, A. and Schneider, J. and Schumacher, L. and Sclafani, S. and Seckel, D. and Seunarine, S. and Shefali, S. and Silva, M. and Snihur, R. and Soedingrekso, J. and Soldin, D. and Song, M. and Spiczak, G. M. and Spiering, C. and Stachurska, J. and Stamatikos, M. and Stanev, T. and Stasik, A. and Stein, R. and Stettner, J. and Steuer, A. and Stezelberger, T. and Stokstad, R. G. and Stossl, A. and Strotjohann, N. L. and Stuerwald, T. and Stuttard, T. and Sullivan, G. W. and Sutherland, M. and Taboada, I and Tenholt, F. and Ter-Antonyan, S. and Terliuk, A. and Tilav, S. and Tomankova, L. and Tonnis, C. and Toscano, S. and Tosi, D. and Tselengidou, M. and Tung, C. F. and Turcati, A. and Turcotte, R. and Turley, C. F. and Ty, B. and Unger, E. and Elorrieta, M. A. Unland and Usner, M. and Vandenbroucke, J. and Van Driessche, Ward and van Eijk, D. and van Eijndhoven, N. and Vanheule, Sander and van Santen, J. and Vraeghe, Matthias and Walck, C. and Wallace, A. and Wallraff, M. and Wandkowsky, N. and Watson, T. B. and Weaver, C. and Weiss, M. J. and Weldert, J. and Wendt, C. and Werthebach, J. and Westerhoff, S. and Whelan, B. J. and Whitehorn, N. and Wiebe, K. and Wiebusch, C. H. and Wille, L. and Williams, D. R. and Wills, L. and Wolf, M. and Wood, J. and Wood, T. R. and Woschnagg, K. and Wrede, G. and Xu, D. L. and Xu, X. W. and Xu, Y. and Yanez, J. P. and Yodh, G. and Yoshida, S. and Yuan, T. and Zoecklein, M.},
  issn         = {2470-0010},
  journal      = {PHYSICAL REVIEW D},
  keywords     = {ENERGY-SPECTRUM},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {8},
  pages        = {26},
  title        = {Cosmic ray spectrum and composition from PeV to EeV using 3 years of data from IceTop and IceCube},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.100.082002},
  volume       = {100},
  year         = {2019},
}

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