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New insights about vaccine effectiveness: Impact of attenuated PRRS-strain vaccination on heterologous strain transmission

(2020) Vaccine. p.3050-3061
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Abstract
Vaccination is the main tool for controlling infectious diseases in livestock. Yet current vaccines only provide partial protection raising concerns about vaccine effectiveness in the field. Two successive transmission trials were performed involving 52 pigs to evaluate the effectiveness of a Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) vaccinal strain candidate against horizontal transmission of a virulent heterologous strain. PRRS virus, above the specified limit of detection, was observed in serum and nasal secretions for all but one pig (the exception only tested positive for serum), indicating that vaccination did not protect pigs from becoming infected and shedding the heterologous strain. However, vaccination delayed the onset of viraemia, reduced the duration of shedding and significantly decreased viral load throughout infection. Serum antibody profiles indicated that 4 out of 13 (31%) vaccinates in one trial had no serological response (NSR). A Bayesian epidemiological model was fitted to the data to assess the impact of vaccination and presence of NSRs on PRRS virus transmission dynamics. Despite little evidence for reduction in the transmission rate, vaccinated animals were on average slower to become infectious, experienced a shorter infectious period and recovered faster. The overall PRRSV transmission potential, represented by the reproductive ratio R-0 was lower for the vaccinated animals, although there was substantial overlap in the credibility intervals for both groups. Model selection suggests that transmission parameters of vaccinated pigs with NSR were more similar to those of unvaccinated animals. The presence of NSRs in a population, however, seemed to only marginally affect the transmission dynamics. The results suggest that even when vaccination can't prevent infection, it can still have beneficial impacts on the transmission dynamics and contribute to reducing a herd's R-0. However, biosecurity and other measures need to be considered to decrease contact rates and lower R-0 below 1. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health, General Immunology and Microbiology, Molecular Medicine, General Veterinary, Infectious Diseases

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MLA
Chase-Topping, Margo, et al. “New Insights about Vaccine Effectiveness: Impact of Attenuated PRRS-Strain Vaccination on Heterologous Strain Transmission.” Vaccine, 2020, pp. 3050–61, doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.02.015.
APA
Chase-Topping, M., Xie, J., Pooley, C., Trus, I., Bonckaert, C., Rediger, K., … Doeschl-Wilson, A. (2020). New insights about vaccine effectiveness: Impact of attenuated PRRS-strain vaccination on heterologous strain transmission. Vaccine, 3050–3061. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.02.015
Chicago author-date
Chase-Topping, Margo, Jiexiong Xie, Christopher Pooley, Ivan Trus, Caroline Bonckaert, Kelly Rediger, Richard I. Bailey, et al. 2020. “New Insights about Vaccine Effectiveness: Impact of Attenuated PRRS-Strain Vaccination on Heterologous Strain Transmission.” Vaccine, 3050–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.02.015.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Chase-Topping, Margo, Jiexiong Xie, Christopher Pooley, Ivan Trus, Caroline Bonckaert, Kelly Rediger, Richard I. Bailey, Helen Brown, Vasiliki Bitsouni, Maria Belén Barrio, Sylvie Gueguen, Hans Nauwynck, and Andrea Doeschl-Wilson. 2020. “New Insights about Vaccine Effectiveness: Impact of Attenuated PRRS-Strain Vaccination on Heterologous Strain Transmission.” Vaccine: 3050–3061. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.02.015.
Vancouver
1.
Chase-Topping M, Xie J, Pooley C, Trus I, Bonckaert C, Rediger K, et al. New insights about vaccine effectiveness: Impact of attenuated PRRS-strain vaccination on heterologous strain transmission. Vaccine. 2020;3050–61.
IEEE
[1]
M. Chase-Topping et al., “New insights about vaccine effectiveness: Impact of attenuated PRRS-strain vaccination on heterologous strain transmission,” Vaccine, pp. 3050–3061, 2020.
@article{8668060,
  abstract     = {Vaccination is the main tool for controlling infectious diseases in livestock. Yet current vaccines only provide partial protection raising concerns about vaccine effectiveness in the field.

Two successive transmission trials were performed involving 52 pigs to evaluate the effectiveness of a Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) vaccinal strain candidate against horizontal transmission of a virulent heterologous strain. PRRS virus, above the specified limit of detection, was observed in serum and nasal secretions for all but one pig (the exception only tested positive for serum), indicating that vaccination did not protect pigs from becoming infected and shedding the heterologous strain. However, vaccination delayed the onset of viraemia, reduced the duration of shedding and significantly decreased viral load throughout infection. Serum antibody profiles indicated that 4 out of 13 (31%) vaccinates in one trial had no serological response (NSR).

A Bayesian epidemiological model was fitted to the data to assess the impact of vaccination and presence of NSRs on PRRS virus transmission dynamics. Despite little evidence for reduction in the transmission rate, vaccinated animals were on average slower to become infectious, experienced a shorter infectious period and recovered faster. The overall PRRSV transmission potential, represented by the reproductive ratio R-0 was lower for the vaccinated animals, although there was substantial overlap in the credibility intervals for both groups. Model selection suggests that transmission parameters of vaccinated pigs with NSR were more similar to those of unvaccinated animals. The presence of NSRs in a population, however, seemed to only marginally affect the transmission dynamics.

The results suggest that even when vaccination can't prevent infection, it can still have beneficial impacts on the transmission dynamics and contribute to reducing a herd's R-0. However, biosecurity and other measures need to be considered to decrease contact rates and lower R-0 below 1. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.},
  author       = {Chase-Topping, Margo and Xie, Jiexiong and Pooley, Christopher and Trus, Ivan and Bonckaert, Caroline and Rediger, Kelly and Bailey, Richard I. and Brown, Helen and Bitsouni, Vasiliki and Barrio, Maria Belén and Gueguen, Sylvie and Nauwynck, Hans and Doeschl-Wilson, Andrea},
  issn         = {0264-410X},
  journal      = {Vaccine},
  keywords     = {Public Health,Environmental and Occupational Health,General Immunology and Microbiology,Molecular Medicine,General Veterinary,Infectious Diseases},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {3050--3061},
  title        = {New insights about vaccine effectiveness: Impact of attenuated PRRS-strain vaccination on heterologous strain transmission},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.02.015},
  year         = {2020},
}

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