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Abstract
Backward erosion piping is one of the four main types of internal erosion threatening dams, dikes and levees. The backward erosion piping process occurs in the foundation of these water retaining structures and forms a specific threat to the older constructions, which have been built in the past when proper knowledge about this failure process was still lacking. In case of recent constructions, remedial measures may still be required in case of increased hydraulic conditions caused by modifications to the structure like heightening, increased safety requirements or climate change. A detailed understanding of the processes leading to failure has been developed in the past decades by laboratory research, field experiments and case histories. This enables the design of effective countermeasures. Classic measures like increasing the seepage length still work of course, but measures reducing the groundwater flow or blocking the transport of particles without obstructing the groundwater flow tend to be more cost-effective and have a smaller spatial impact. Current research on the so-called coarse sand barrier, a single filter to be installed at existing dams, dikes and levees, is described in more detail.
Keywords
Earthfill dam, embankment dam, filter material, foundation treatment, groundwater flow, hydraulic model test, internal erosion, numerical model, physical model, piping, protective measure, reinforcement

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MLA
Koelewijn, Andre R., et al. “Employing Process Knowledge of Backward Erosion Piping to Devise Effective Countermeasures.” Twenty-Sixth International Congress on Large Dams : Vingt-Sixième Congrès International Des Grands Barrages, CRC, 2018, pp. 631–41, doi:10.1201/9780429465086-215.
APA
Koelewijn, A. R., Van Beek, V. M., Förster, U., Bezuijen, A., Rosenbrand, E., & Heerema, J. J. (2018). Employing process knowledge of backward erosion piping to devise effective countermeasures. Twenty-Sixth International Congress on Large Dams : Vingt-Sixième Congrès International Des Grands Barrages, 631–641. https://doi.org/10.1201/9780429465086-215
Chicago author-date
Koelewijn, Andre R., Vera M. Van Beek, Ulrich Förster, Adam Bezuijen, Esther Rosenbrand, and Jan Jaap Heerema. 2018. “Employing Process Knowledge of Backward Erosion Piping to Devise Effective Countermeasures.” In Twenty-Sixth International Congress on Large Dams : Vingt-Sixième Congrès International Des Grands Barrages, 631–41. London: CRC. https://doi.org/10.1201/9780429465086-215.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Koelewijn, Andre R., Vera M. Van Beek, Ulrich Förster, Adam Bezuijen, Esther Rosenbrand, and Jan Jaap Heerema. 2018. “Employing Process Knowledge of Backward Erosion Piping to Devise Effective Countermeasures.” In Twenty-Sixth International Congress on Large Dams : Vingt-Sixième Congrès International Des Grands Barrages, 631–641. London: CRC. doi:10.1201/9780429465086-215.
Vancouver
1.
Koelewijn AR, Van Beek VM, Förster U, Bezuijen A, Rosenbrand E, Heerema JJ. Employing process knowledge of backward erosion piping to devise effective countermeasures. In: Twenty-Sixth International Congress on Large Dams : Vingt-Sixième Congrès International des Grands Barrages. London: CRC; 2018. p. 631–41.
IEEE
[1]
A. R. Koelewijn, V. M. Van Beek, U. Förster, A. Bezuijen, E. Rosenbrand, and J. J. Heerema, “Employing process knowledge of backward erosion piping to devise effective countermeasures,” in Twenty-Sixth International Congress on Large Dams : Vingt-Sixième Congrès International des Grands Barrages, Vienna, Austria, 2018, pp. 631–641.
@inproceedings{8668054,
  abstract     = {{Backward erosion piping is one of the four main types of internal erosion threatening dams, dikes and levees. The backward erosion piping process occurs in the foundation of these water retaining structures and forms a specific threat to the older constructions, which have been built in the past when proper knowledge about this failure process was still lacking. In case of recent constructions, remedial measures may still be required in case of increased hydraulic conditions caused by modifications to the structure like heightening, increased safety requirements or climate change. A detailed understanding of the processes leading to failure has been developed in the past decades by laboratory research, field experiments and case histories. This enables the design of effective countermeasures. Classic measures like increasing the seepage length still work of course, but measures reducing the groundwater flow or blocking the transport of particles without obstructing the groundwater flow tend to be more cost-effective and have a smaller spatial impact. Current research on the so-called coarse sand barrier, a single filter to be installed at existing dams, dikes and levees, is described in more detail.}},
  articleno    = {{R40}},
  author       = {{Koelewijn, Andre R. and Van Beek, Vera M. and Förster, Ulrich and Bezuijen, Adam and Rosenbrand, Esther and Heerema, Jan Jaap}},
  booktitle    = {{Twenty-Sixth International Congress on Large Dams : Vingt-Sixième Congrès International des Grands Barrages}},
  isbn         = {{9781138612280}},
  keywords     = {{Earthfill dam,embankment dam,filter material,foundation treatment,groundwater flow,hydraulic model test,internal erosion,numerical model,physical model,piping,protective measure,reinforcement}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  location     = {{Vienna, Austria}},
  pages        = {{R40:631--R40:641}},
  publisher    = {{CRC}},
  title        = {{Employing process knowledge of backward erosion piping to devise effective countermeasures}},
  url          = {{http://doi.org/10.1201/9780429465086-215}},
  year         = {{2018}},
}

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