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Novel rapid room temperature synthesis of conjugated microporous polymer for metal-free photocatalytic degradation of fluoroquinolones

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Abstract
The existence of Fluoroquinolones (FQs), non-biodegradable pharmacophores, in the natural environment possesses a serious threat. We herein report a novel, rapid, room-temperature synthesis of semiconducting conjugated microporous polymer (CMP) for the decontamination of four second-generation FQs, Norfloxacin, Enrofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, and Ofloxacin. The CMP demonstrated impressive gas uptake and FQ adsorption ability. Decreased HOMO-LUMO bandgap resulted in enhanced exciton pair generation on visible-light-illumination. Additionally, a high degree of photocurrent response and suitable redox potentials of the material conjointly endorsed its almost quantitative FQ-degradation efficiency. Ofloxacin showed the best removal efficiency with 0.061 and 0.207 min−1 adsorption and degradation rate constants, respectively, one of the highest values reported. The CMP exhibited equipotent activity for other FQs as well. On increasing the concentration of the FQs or decreasing the incident photo-intensity, quantitative removal efficiencies are observed. Changing the pH of the medium from acidic to alkaline did not impart any change in catalytic activity as well. The reactive species involved viz. O2−, 1O2, etc. and their roles in the degradation process were determined through control and trapping experiments. A plausible in-depth mechanistic pathway was assessed from the FQ degradation intermediates, and the reactive catalytic species substantiating step-by-step break down of the antibiotic backbone.
Keywords
Environmental Engineering, Waste Management and Disposal, Pollution, Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis, Environmental Chemistry, Conjugated microporous polymer, Fluoroquinolones, Photocatalysis, Wastewater, Heterogeneous catalysis

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MLA
Chakraborty, Jeet, et al. “Novel Rapid Room Temperature Synthesis of Conjugated Microporous Polymer for Metal-Free Photocatalytic Degradation of Fluoroquinolones.” JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS, vol. 398, 2020, doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122928.
APA
Chakraborty, J., Nath, I., Jabbour, C., Aljammal, N., Song, S., Kao, C.-M., … Verpoort, F. (2020). Novel rapid room temperature synthesis of conjugated microporous polymer for metal-free photocatalytic degradation of fluoroquinolones. JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS, 398. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122928
Chicago author-date
Chakraborty, Jeet, Ipsita Nath, Christia Jabbour, Noor Aljammal, Shaoxian Song, Chih-Ming Kao, Philippe Heynderickx, and Francis Verpoort. 2020. “Novel Rapid Room Temperature Synthesis of Conjugated Microporous Polymer for Metal-Free Photocatalytic Degradation of Fluoroquinolones.” JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS 398. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122928.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Chakraborty, Jeet, Ipsita Nath, Christia Jabbour, Noor Aljammal, Shaoxian Song, Chih-Ming Kao, Philippe Heynderickx, and Francis Verpoort. 2020. “Novel Rapid Room Temperature Synthesis of Conjugated Microporous Polymer for Metal-Free Photocatalytic Degradation of Fluoroquinolones.” JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS 398. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122928.
Vancouver
1.
Chakraborty J, Nath I, Jabbour C, Aljammal N, Song S, Kao C-M, et al. Novel rapid room temperature synthesis of conjugated microporous polymer for metal-free photocatalytic degradation of fluoroquinolones. JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. 2020;398.
IEEE
[1]
J. Chakraborty et al., “Novel rapid room temperature synthesis of conjugated microporous polymer for metal-free photocatalytic degradation of fluoroquinolones,” JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS, vol. 398, 2020.
@article{8667978,
  abstract     = {The existence of Fluoroquinolones (FQs), non-biodegradable pharmacophores, in the natural environment possesses a serious threat. We herein report a novel, rapid, room-temperature synthesis of semiconducting conjugated microporous polymer (CMP) for the decontamination of four second-generation FQs, Norfloxacin, Enrofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, and Ofloxacin. The CMP demonstrated impressive gas uptake and FQ adsorption ability. Decreased HOMO-LUMO bandgap resulted in enhanced exciton pair generation on visible-light-illumination. Additionally, a high degree of photocurrent response and suitable redox potentials of the material conjointly endorsed its almost quantitative FQ-degradation efficiency. Ofloxacin showed the best removal efficiency with 0.061 and 0.207 min−1 adsorption and degradation rate constants, respectively, one of the highest values reported. The CMP exhibited equipotent activity for other FQs as well. On increasing the concentration of the FQs or decreasing the incident photo-intensity, quantitative removal efficiencies are observed. Changing the pH of the medium from acidic to alkaline did not impart any change in catalytic activity as well. The reactive species involved viz. O2−, 1O2, etc. and their roles in the degradation process were determined through control and trapping experiments. A plausible in-depth mechanistic pathway was assessed from the FQ degradation intermediates, and the reactive catalytic species substantiating step-by-step break down of the antibiotic backbone.},
  articleno    = {122928},
  author       = {Chakraborty, Jeet and Nath, Ipsita and Jabbour, Christia and Aljammal, Noor and Song, Shaoxian and Kao, Chih-Ming and Heynderickx, Philippe and Verpoort, Francis},
  issn         = {0304-3894},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS},
  keywords     = {Environmental Engineering,Waste Management and Disposal,Pollution,Health,Toxicology and Mutagenesis,Environmental Chemistry,Conjugated microporous polymer,Fluoroquinolones,Photocatalysis,Wastewater,Heterogeneous catalysis},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {10},
  title        = {Novel rapid room temperature synthesis of conjugated microporous polymer for metal-free photocatalytic degradation of fluoroquinolones},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122928},
  volume       = {398},
  year         = {2020},
}

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