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Mineralogical and geochemical study of the rare earth element mineralization at Gakara (Burundi)

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Abstract
The rare earth element (REE) mineralization of Gakara (Burundi) has first been discovered in 1936 and has periodically been the subject of geological studies, at times when the exploitation of bastnäsite-(Ce) and monazite-(Ce) was economically interesting. This study focuses on the establishment of a mineral paragenesis for Gakara, with special attention to the REE-bearing phases, to understand the formation history of the deposit. The paragenesis can be subdivided into 3 stages: primary ore deposition, brecciation stage and supergene alteration. Evidence for fenitization processes (i.e. pinkish-red cathodoluminescence of K-feldpar, brecciation stage) and the strong enrichment of light REEs in bastnäsite and monazite substantiate the hypothesis of a structurally controlled hydrothermal mineralization with a strong carbonatitic affinity. This likely confirms the association of the Gakara REE deposit with the Neoproterozoic alignment of alkaline complexes and carbonatites along the present-day Western Rift. It suggests a direct link with a – currently unidentified – carbonatitic body at depth, possibly derived from a predominantly metasomatized lithospheric mantle.
Keywords
Economic Geology, Geology, Geochemistry and Petrology, Bastnäsite, Monazite, Rare earth elements, Karagwe-Ankole belt, Paragenesis, Cathodoluminescence, Raman spectroscopy, LA-ICP-MS, KIBARA BELT, BASIN DEVELOPMENT, QUARTZ, MONAZITE, REE, CATHODOLUMINESCENCE, IDENTIFICATION, SPECTROSCOPY, EVOLUTION

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MLA
Buyse, Florian, et al. “Mineralogical and Geochemical Study of the Rare Earth Element Mineralization at Gakara (Burundi).” ORE GEOLOGY REVIEWS, vol. 124, 2020, doi:10.1016/j.oregeorev.2020.103659.
APA
Buyse, F., Dewaele, S., Decrée, S., & Mees, F. (2020). Mineralogical and geochemical study of the rare earth element mineralization at Gakara (Burundi). ORE GEOLOGY REVIEWS, 124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oregeorev.2020.103659
Chicago author-date
Buyse, Florian, Stijn Dewaele, Sophie Decrée, and Florias Mees. 2020. “Mineralogical and Geochemical Study of the Rare Earth Element Mineralization at Gakara (Burundi).” ORE GEOLOGY REVIEWS 124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oregeorev.2020.103659.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Buyse, Florian, Stijn Dewaele, Sophie Decrée, and Florias Mees. 2020. “Mineralogical and Geochemical Study of the Rare Earth Element Mineralization at Gakara (Burundi).” ORE GEOLOGY REVIEWS 124. doi:10.1016/j.oregeorev.2020.103659.
Vancouver
1.
Buyse F, Dewaele S, Decrée S, Mees F. Mineralogical and geochemical study of the rare earth element mineralization at Gakara (Burundi). ORE GEOLOGY REVIEWS. 2020;124.
IEEE
[1]
F. Buyse, S. Dewaele, S. Decrée, and F. Mees, “Mineralogical and geochemical study of the rare earth element mineralization at Gakara (Burundi),” ORE GEOLOGY REVIEWS, vol. 124, 2020.
@article{8667911,
  abstract     = {The rare earth element (REE) mineralization of Gakara (Burundi) has first been discovered in 1936 and has periodically been the subject of geological studies, at times when the exploitation of bastnäsite-(Ce) and monazite-(Ce) was economically interesting. This study focuses on the establishment of a mineral paragenesis for Gakara, with special attention to the REE-bearing phases, to understand the formation history of the deposit. The paragenesis can be subdivided into 3 stages: primary ore deposition, brecciation stage and supergene alteration. Evidence for fenitization processes (i.e. pinkish-red cathodoluminescence of K-feldpar, brecciation stage) and the strong enrichment of light REEs in bastnäsite and monazite substantiate the hypothesis of a structurally controlled hydrothermal mineralization with a strong carbonatitic affinity. This likely confirms the association of the Gakara REE deposit with the Neoproterozoic alignment of alkaline complexes and carbonatites along the present-day Western Rift. It suggests a direct link with a – currently unidentified – carbonatitic body at depth, possibly derived from a predominantly metasomatized lithospheric mantle.},
  articleno    = {103659},
  author       = {Buyse, Florian and Dewaele, Stijn and Decrée, Sophie and Mees, Florias},
  issn         = {0169-1368},
  journal      = {ORE GEOLOGY REVIEWS},
  keywords     = {Economic Geology,Geology,Geochemistry and Petrology,Bastnäsite,Monazite,Rare earth elements,Karagwe-Ankole belt,Paragenesis,Cathodoluminescence,Raman spectroscopy,LA-ICP-MS,KIBARA BELT,BASIN DEVELOPMENT,QUARTZ,MONAZITE,REE,CATHODOLUMINESCENCE,IDENTIFICATION,SPECTROSCOPY,EVOLUTION},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {10},
  title        = {Mineralogical and geochemical study of the rare earth element mineralization at Gakara (Burundi)},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oregeorev.2020.103659},
  volume       = {124},
  year         = {2020},
}

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