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Overview of first Wendelstein 7-X high-performance operation

(2019) NUCLEAR FUSION. 59(11).
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Abstract
The optimized superconducting stellarator device Wendelstein 7-X (with major radius R = 5.5 m, minor radius a = 0.5 m, and 30 m(3) plasma volume) restarted operation after the assembly of a graphite heat shield and 10 inertially cooled island divertor modules. This paper reports on the results from the first high-performance plasma operation. Glow discharge conditioning and ECRH conditioning discharges in helium turned out to be important for density and edge radiation control. Plasma densities of 1-4.5 x 10(19) m(-3) with central electron temperatures 5-10 keV were routinely achieved with hydrogen gas fueling, frequently terminated by a radiative collapse. In a first stage, plasma densities up to 1.4 x 10(20) m(-3) were reached with hydrogen pellet injection and helium gas fueling. Here, the ions are indirectly heated, and at a central density of 8 . 10(19) m(-3) a temperature of 3.4 keV with T-e/T-i = 1 was transiently accomplished, which corresponds to nT(i)(0)tau(E) = 6.4 x 10(19) keV s m(-3) with a peak diamagnetic energy of 1.1 MJ and volume-averaged normalized plasma pressure <beta > = 1.2%. The routine access to high plasma densities was opened with boronization of the first wall. After boronization, the oxygen impurity content was reduced by a factor of 10, the carbon impurity content by a factor of 5. The reduced (edge) plasma radiation level gives routinely access to higher densities without radiation collapse, e.g. well above 1 x 10(20) m(-2) line integrated density and T-e = T-i = 2 keV central temperatures at moderate ECRH power. Both X2 and O2 mode ECRH schemes were successfully applied. Core turbulence was measured with a phase contrast imaging diagnostic and suppression of turbulence during pellet injection was observed.
Keywords
Nuclear and High Energy Physics, Condensed Matter Physics, stellarator, divertor, ECR heating, NBI heating, plasma performance, turbulence, impurities, DENSITY LIMIT, PHYSICS, CONFINEMENT, STELLARATOR, SYSTEM, W7-X

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MLA
Klinger, T., et al. “Overview of First Wendelstein 7-X High-Performance Operation.” NUCLEAR FUSION, vol. 59, no. 11, 2019, doi:10.1088/1741-4326/ab03a7.
APA
Klinger, T., Andreeva, T., Bozhenkov, S., Brandt, C., Burhenn, R., Buttenschön, B., … Zuin, M. (2019). Overview of first Wendelstein 7-X high-performance operation. NUCLEAR FUSION, 59(11). https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-4326/ab03a7
Chicago author-date
Klinger, T., T. Andreeva, S. Bozhenkov, C. Brandt, R. Burhenn, B. Buttenschön, G. Fuchert, et al. 2019. “Overview of First Wendelstein 7-X High-Performance Operation.” NUCLEAR FUSION 59 (11). https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-4326/ab03a7.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Klinger, T., T. Andreeva, S. Bozhenkov, C. Brandt, R. Burhenn, B. Buttenschön, G. Fuchert, B. Geiger, O. Grulke, H.P. Laqua, N. Pablant, K. Rahbarnia, T. Stange, A. von Stechow, N. Tamura, H. Thomsen, Y. Turkin, T. Wegner, I. Abramovic, S. Äkäslompolo, J. Alcuson, P. Aleynikov, K. Aleynikova, A. Ali, A. Alonso, G. Anda, E. Ascasibar, J.P. Bähner, S.G. Baek, M. Balden, J. Baldzuhn, M. Banduch, T. Barbui, W. Behr, C. Beidler, A. Benndorf, C. Biedermann, Wolfgang Biel, B. Blackwell, E. Blanco, M. Blatzheim, S. Ballinger, T. Bluhm, D. Böckenhoff, B. Böswirth, L.-G. Böttger, M. Borchardt, V. Borsuk, J. Boscary, H.-S. Bosch, M. Beurskens, R. Brakel, H. Brand, T. Bräuer, H. Braune, S. Brezinsek, K.-J. Brunner, R. Bussiahn, V. Bykov, J. Cai, I. Calvo, B. Cannas, A. Cappa, A. Carls, D. Carralero, L. Carraro, B. Carvalho, F. Castejon, A. Charl, N. Chaudhary, D. Chauvin, F. Chernyshev, M. Cianciosa, R. Citarella, G. Claps, J. Coenen, M. Cole, M.J. Cole, F. Cordella, G. Cseh, A. Czarnecka, K. Czerski, M. Czerwinski, G. Czymek, A. da Molin, A. da Silva, H. Damm, A. de la Pena, S. Degenkolbe, C.P. Dhard, M. Dibon, A. Dinklage, T. Dittmar, M. Drevlak, P. Drewelow, P. Drews, F. Durodie, E. Edlund, P. van Eeten, F. Effenberg, G. Ehrke, S. Elgeti, M. Endler, D. Ennis, H. Esteban, T. Estrada, J. Fellinger, Y. Feng, E. Flom, H. Fernandes, W.H. Fietz, W. Figacz, J. Fontdecaba, O. Ford, T. Fornal, H. Frerichs, A. Freund, T. Funaba, A. Galkowski, G. Gantenbein, Y. Gao, J. García Regaña, D. Gates, J. Geiger, V. Giannella, A. Gogoleva, B. Goncalves, A. Goriaev, D. Gradic, M. Grahl, J. Green, H. Greuner, A. Grosman, H. Grote, M. Gruca, C. Guerard, P. Hacker, X. Han, J.H. Harris, D. Hartmann, D. Hathiramani, B. Hein, B. Heinemann, P. Helander, S. Henneberg, M. Henkel, J. Hernandez Sanchez, C. Hidalgo, M. Hirsch, K.P. Hollfeld, U. Höfel, A. Hölting, D. Höschen, M. Houry, J. Howard, X. Huang, Z. Huang, M. Hubeny, M. Huber, H. Hunger, K. Ida, T. Ilkei, S. Illy, B. Israeli, S. Jablonski, M. Jakubowski, J. Jelonnek, H. Jenzsch, T. Jesche, M. Jia, P. Junghanns, J. Kacmarczyk, J.-P. Kallmeyer, U. Kamionka, H. Kasahara, W. Kasparek, Y.O. Kazakov, N. Kenmochi, C. Killer, A. Kirschner, R. Kleiber, J. Knauer, M. Knaup, A. Knieps, T. Kobarg, G. Kocsis, F. Köchl, Y. Kolesnichenko, A. Könies, R. König, P. Kornejew, J.-P. Koschinsky, F. Köster, M. Krämer, R. Krampitz, A. Krämer-Flecken, N. Krawczyk, T. Kremeyer, J. Krom, M. Krychowiak, I. Ksiazek, M. Kubkowska, G. Kühner, T. Kurki-Suonio, P.A. Kurz, S. Kwak, M. Landreman, P. Lang, R. Lang, A. Langenberg, S. Langish, H. Laqua, R. Laube, S. Lazerson, C. Lechte, M. Lennartz, W. Leonhardt, C. Li, C. Li, Y. Li, Y. Liang, C. Linsmeier, S. Liu, J.-F. Lobsien, D. Loesser, J. Loizu Cisquella, J. Lore, A. Lorenz, M. Losert, A. Lücke, A. Lumsdaine, V. Lutsenko, H. Maaßberg, O. Marchuk, J.H. Matthew, S. Marsen, M. Marushchenko, S. Masuzaki, D. Maurer, M. Mayer, K. McCarthy, P. McNeely, A. Meier, D. Mellein, B. Mendelevitch, P. Mertens, D. Mikkelsen, A. Mishchenko, B. Missal, J. Mittelstaedt, T. Mizuuchi, A. Mollen, V. Moncada, T. Mönnich, T. Morisaki, D. Moseev, S. Murakami, G. Náfrádi, M. Nagel, D. Naujoks, H. Neilson, R. Neu, O. Neubauer, U. Neuner, T. Ngo, D. Nicolai, S.K. Nielsen, H. Niemann, T. Nishizawa, R. Nocentini, C. Nührenberg, J. Nührenberg, S. Obermayer, G. Offermanns, K. Ogawa, J. Ölmanns, J. Ongena, J.W. Oosterbeek, G. Orozco, M. Otte, L. Pacios Rodriguez, N. Panadero, N. Panadero Alvarez, D. Papenfuß, S. Paqay, E. Pasch, A. Pavone, E. Pawelec, T.S. Pedersen, G. Pelka, V. Perseo, B. Peterson, D. Pilopp, S. Pingel, F. Pisano, B. Plaum, G. Plunk, P. Pölöskei, M. Porkolab, J. Proll, M.-E. Puiatti, A. Puig Sitjes, F. Purps, M. Rack, S. Récsei, A. Reiman, F. Reimold, D. Reiter, F. Remppel, S. Renard, R. Riedl, J. Riemann, K. Risse, V. Rohde, H. Röhlinger, M. Romé, D. Rondeshagen, P. Rong, B. Roth, L. Rudischhauser, K. Rummel, T. Rummel, A. Runov, N. Rust, L. Ryc, S. Ryosuke, R. Sakamoto, M. Salewski, A. Samartsev, E. Sanchez, F. Sano, S. Satake, J. Schacht, G. Satheeswaran, F. Schauer, T. Scherer, J. Schilling, A. Schlaich, G. Schlisio, F. Schluck, K.-H. Schlüter, J. Schmitt, H. Schmitz, O. Schmitz, S. Schmuck, M. Schneider, W. Schneider, P. Scholz, R. Schrittwieser, M. Schröder, T. Schröder, R. Schroeder, H. Schumacher, B. Schweer, E. Scott, S. Sereda, B. Shanahan, M. Sibilia, P. Sinha, S. Sipliä, C. Slaby, M. Sleczka, H. Smith, W. Spiess, D.A. Spong, A. Spring, R. Stadler, M. Stejner, L. Stephey, U. Stridde, C. Suzuki, J. Svensson, V. Szabó, T. Szabolics, T. Szepesi, Z. Szökefalvi-Nagy, A. Tancetti, J. Terry, J. Thomas, M. Thumm, J.M. Travere, P. Traverso, J. Tretter, H. Trimino Mora, H. Tsuchiya, T. Tsujimura, S. Tulipán, B. Unterberg, I. Vakulchyk, S. Valet, L. Vano, B. van Milligen, A.J. van Vuuren, L. Vela, J.-L. Velasco, M. Vergote, M. Vervier, N. Vianello, H. Viebke, R. Vilbrandt, A. Vorköper, S. Wadle, F. Wagner, E. Wang, N. Wang, Z. Wang, F. Warmer, T. Wauters, L. Wegener, J. Weggen, Y. Wei, G. Weir, J. Wendorf, U. Wenzel, A. Werner, A. White, B. Wiegel, F. Wilde, T. Windisch, M. Winkler, A. Winter, V. Winters, S. Wolf, R.C. Wolf, A. Wright, G. Wurden, P. Xanthopoulos, H. Yamada, I. Yamada, R. Yasuhara, M. Yokoyama, M. Zanini, M. Zarnstorff, A. Zeitler, D. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. Zhu, M. Zilker, A. Zocco, S. Zoletnik, and M. Zuin. 2019. “Overview of First Wendelstein 7-X High-Performance Operation.” NUCLEAR FUSION 59 (11). doi:10.1088/1741-4326/ab03a7.
Vancouver
1.
Klinger T, Andreeva T, Bozhenkov S, Brandt C, Burhenn R, Buttenschön B, et al. Overview of first Wendelstein 7-X high-performance operation. NUCLEAR FUSION. 2019;59(11).
IEEE
[1]
T. Klinger et al., “Overview of first Wendelstein 7-X high-performance operation,” NUCLEAR FUSION, vol. 59, no. 11, 2019.
@article{8666982,
  abstract     = {The optimized superconducting stellarator device Wendelstein 7-X (with major radius R = 5.5 m, minor radius a = 0.5 m, and 30 m(3) plasma volume) restarted operation after the assembly of a graphite heat shield and 10 inertially cooled island divertor modules. This paper reports on the results from the first high-performance plasma operation. Glow discharge conditioning and ECRH conditioning discharges in helium turned out to be important for density and edge radiation control. Plasma densities of 1-4.5 x 10(19) m(-3) with central electron temperatures 5-10 keV were routinely achieved with hydrogen gas fueling, frequently terminated by a radiative collapse. In a first stage, plasma densities up to 1.4 x 10(20) m(-3) were reached with hydrogen pellet injection and helium gas fueling. Here, the ions are indirectly heated, and at a central density of 8 . 10(19) m(-3) a temperature of 3.4 keV with T-e/T-i = 1 was transiently accomplished, which corresponds to nT(i)(0)tau(E) = 6.4 x 10(19) keV s m(-3) with a peak diamagnetic energy of 1.1 MJ and volume-averaged normalized plasma pressure <beta > = 1.2%. The routine access to high plasma densities was opened with boronization of the first wall. After boronization, the oxygen impurity content was reduced by a factor of 10, the carbon impurity content by a factor of 5. The reduced (edge) plasma radiation level gives routinely access to higher densities without radiation collapse, e.g. well above 1 x 10(20) m(-2) line integrated density and T-e = T-i = 2 keV central temperatures at moderate ECRH power. Both X2 and O2 mode ECRH schemes were successfully applied. Core turbulence was measured with a phase contrast imaging diagnostic and suppression of turbulence during pellet injection was observed.},
  articleno    = {112004},
  author       = {Klinger, T. and Andreeva, T. and Bozhenkov, S. and Brandt, C. and Burhenn, R. and Buttenschön, B. and Fuchert, G. and Geiger, B. and Grulke, O. and Laqua, H.P. and Pablant, N. and Rahbarnia, K. and Stange, T. and von Stechow, A. and Tamura, N. and Thomsen, H. and Turkin, Y. and Wegner, T. and Abramovic, I. and Äkäslompolo, S. and Alcuson, J. and Aleynikov, P. and Aleynikova, K. and Ali, A. and Alonso, A. and Anda, G. and Ascasibar, E. and Bähner, J.P. and Baek, S.G. and Balden, M. and Baldzuhn, J. and Banduch, M. and Barbui, T. and Behr, W. and Beidler, C. and Benndorf, A. and Biedermann, C. and Biel, Wolfgang and Blackwell, B. and Blanco, E. and Blatzheim, M. and Ballinger, S. and Bluhm, T. and Böckenhoff, D. and Böswirth, B. and Böttger, L.-G. and Borchardt, M. and Borsuk, V. and Boscary, J. and Bosch, H.-S. and Beurskens, M. and Brakel, R. and Brand, H. and Bräuer, T. and Braune, H. and Brezinsek, S. and Brunner, K.-J. and Bussiahn, R. and Bykov, V. and Cai, J. and Calvo, I. and Cannas, B. and Cappa, A. and Carls, A. and Carralero, D. and Carraro, L. and Carvalho, B. and Castejon, F. and Charl, A. and Chaudhary, N. and Chauvin, D. and Chernyshev, F. and Cianciosa, M. and Citarella, R. and Claps, G. and Coenen, J. and Cole, M. and Cole, M.J. and Cordella, F. and Cseh, G. and Czarnecka, A. and Czerski, K. and Czerwinski, M. and Czymek, G. and da Molin, A. and da Silva, A. and Damm, H. and de la Pena, A. and Degenkolbe, S. and Dhard, C.P. and Dibon, M. and Dinklage, A. and Dittmar, T. and Drevlak, M. and Drewelow, P. and Drews, P. and Durodie, F. and Edlund, E. and van Eeten, P. and Effenberg, F. and Ehrke, G. and Elgeti, S. and Endler, M. and Ennis, D. and Esteban, H. and Estrada, T. and Fellinger, J. and Feng, Y. and Flom, E. and Fernandes, H. and Fietz, W.H. and Figacz, W. and Fontdecaba, J. and Ford, O. and Fornal, T. and Frerichs, H. and Freund, A. and Funaba, T. and Galkowski, A. and Gantenbein, G. and Gao, Y. and García Regaña, J. and Gates, D. and Geiger, J. and Giannella, V. and Gogoleva, A. and Goncalves, B. and Goriaev, A. and Gradic, D. and Grahl, M. and Green, J. and Greuner, H. and Grosman, A. and Grote, H. and Gruca, M. and Guerard, C. and Hacker, P. and Han, X. and Harris, J.H. and Hartmann, D. and Hathiramani, D. and Hein, B. and Heinemann, B. and Helander, P. and Henneberg, S. and Henkel, M. and Hernandez Sanchez, J. and Hidalgo, C. and Hirsch, M. and Hollfeld, K.P. and Höfel, U. and Hölting, A. and Höschen, D. and Houry, M. and Howard, J. and Huang, X. and Huang, Z. and Hubeny, M. and Huber, M. and Hunger, H. and Ida, K. and Ilkei, T. and Illy, S. and Israeli, B. and Jablonski, S. and Jakubowski, M. and Jelonnek, J. and Jenzsch, H. and Jesche, T. and Jia, M. and Junghanns, P. and Kacmarczyk, J. and Kallmeyer, J.-P. and Kamionka, U. and Kasahara, H. and Kasparek, W. and Kazakov, Y.O. and Kenmochi, N. and Killer, C. and Kirschner, A. and Kleiber, R. and Knauer, J. and Knaup, M. and Knieps, A. and Kobarg, T. and Kocsis, G. and Köchl, F. and Kolesnichenko, Y. and Könies, A. and König, R. and Kornejew, P. and Koschinsky, J.-P. and Köster, F. and Krämer, M. and Krampitz, R. and Krämer-Flecken, A. and Krawczyk, N. and Kremeyer, T. and Krom, J. and Krychowiak, M. and Ksiazek, I. and Kubkowska, M. and Kühner, G. and Kurki-Suonio, T. and Kurz, P.A. and Kwak, S. and Landreman, M. and Lang, P. and Lang, R. and Langenberg, A. and Langish, S. and Laqua, H. and Laube, R. and Lazerson, S. and Lechte, C. and Lennartz, M. and Leonhardt, W. and Li, C. and Li, C. and Li, Y. and Liang, Y. and Linsmeier, C. and Liu, S. and Lobsien, J.-F. and Loesser, D. and Loizu Cisquella, J. and Lore, J. and Lorenz, A. and Losert, M. and Lücke, A. and Lumsdaine, A. and Lutsenko, V. and Maaßberg, H. and Marchuk, O. and Matthew, J.H. and Marsen, S. and Marushchenko, M. and Masuzaki, S. and Maurer, D. and Mayer, M. and McCarthy, K. and McNeely, P. and Meier, A. and Mellein, D. and Mendelevitch, B. and Mertens, P. and Mikkelsen, D. and Mishchenko, A. and Missal, B. and Mittelstaedt, J. and Mizuuchi, T. and Mollen, A. and Moncada, V. and Mönnich, T. and Morisaki, T. and Moseev, D. and Murakami, S. and Náfrádi, G. and Nagel, M. and Naujoks, D. and Neilson, H. and Neu, R. and Neubauer, O. and Neuner, U. and Ngo, T. and Nicolai, D. and Nielsen, S.K. and Niemann, H. and Nishizawa, T. and Nocentini, R. and Nührenberg, C. and Nührenberg, J. and Obermayer, S. and Offermanns, G. and Ogawa, K. and Ölmanns, J. and Ongena, J. and Oosterbeek, J.W. and Orozco, G. and Otte, M. and Pacios Rodriguez, L. and Panadero, N. and Panadero Alvarez, N. and Papenfuß, D. and Paqay, S. and Pasch, E. and Pavone, A. and Pawelec, E. and Pedersen, T.S. and Pelka, G. and Perseo, V. and Peterson, B. and Pilopp, D. and Pingel, S. and Pisano, F. and Plaum, B. and Plunk, G. and Pölöskei, P. and Porkolab, M. and Proll, J. and Puiatti, M.-E. and Puig Sitjes, A. and Purps, F. and Rack, M. and Récsei, S. and Reiman, A. and Reimold, F. and Reiter, D. and Remppel, F. and Renard, S. and Riedl, R. and Riemann, J. and Risse, K. and Rohde, V. and Röhlinger, H. and Romé, M. and Rondeshagen, D. and Rong, P. and Roth, B. and Rudischhauser, L. and Rummel, K. and Rummel, T. and Runov, A. and Rust, N. and Ryc, L. and Ryosuke, S. and Sakamoto, R. and Salewski, M. and Samartsev, A. and Sanchez, E. and Sano, F. and Satake, S. and Schacht, J. and Satheeswaran, G. and Schauer, F. and Scherer, T. and Schilling, J. and Schlaich, A. and Schlisio, G. and Schluck, F. and Schlüter, K.-H. and Schmitt, J. and Schmitz, H. and Schmitz, O. and Schmuck, S. and Schneider, M. and Schneider, W. and Scholz, P. and Schrittwieser, R. and Schröder, M. and Schröder, T. and Schroeder, R. and Schumacher, H. and Schweer, B. and Scott, E. and Sereda, S. and Shanahan, B. and Sibilia, M. and Sinha, P. and Sipliä, S. and Slaby, C. and Sleczka, M. and Smith, H. and Spiess, W. and Spong, D.A. and Spring, A. and Stadler, R. and Stejner, M. and Stephey, L. and Stridde, U. and Suzuki, C. and Svensson, J. and Szabó, V. and Szabolics, T. and Szepesi, T. and Szökefalvi-Nagy, Z. and Tancetti, A. and Terry, J. and Thomas, J. and Thumm, M. and Travere, J.M. and Traverso, P. and Tretter, J. and Trimino Mora, H. and Tsuchiya, H. and Tsujimura, T. and Tulipán, S. and Unterberg, B. and Vakulchyk, I. and Valet, S. and Vano, L. and van Milligen, B. and van Vuuren, A.J. and Vela, L. and Velasco, J.-L. and Vergote, M. and Vervier, M. and Vianello, N. and Viebke, H. and Vilbrandt, R. and Vorköper, A. and Wadle, S. and Wagner, F. and Wang, E. and Wang, N. and Wang, Z. and Warmer, F. and Wauters, T. and Wegener, L. and Weggen, J. and Wei, Y. and Weir, G. and Wendorf, J. and Wenzel, U. and Werner, A. and White, A. and Wiegel, B. and Wilde, F. and Windisch, T. and Winkler, M. and Winter, A. and Winters, V. and Wolf, S. and Wolf, R.C. and Wright, A. and Wurden, G. and Xanthopoulos, P. and Yamada, H. and Yamada, I. and Yasuhara, R. and Yokoyama, M. and Zanini, M. and Zarnstorff, M. and Zeitler, A. and Zhang, D. and Zhang, H. and Zhu, J. and Zilker, M. and Zocco, A. and Zoletnik, S. and Zuin, M.},
  issn         = {0029-5515},
  journal      = {NUCLEAR FUSION},
  keywords     = {Nuclear and High Energy Physics,Condensed Matter Physics,stellarator,divertor,ECR heating,NBI heating,plasma performance,turbulence,impurities,DENSITY LIMIT,PHYSICS,CONFINEMENT,STELLARATOR,SYSTEM,W7-X},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {11},
  pages        = {11},
  title        = {Overview of first Wendelstein 7-X high-performance operation},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1741-4326/ab03a7},
  volume       = {59},
  year         = {2019},
}

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