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Relative magnitude of infragravity waves at coastal dikes with shallow foreshores : a prediction tool

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Abstract
Despite the widely recognized role of infragravity (IG) waves in many often-hazardous nearshore processes, spectral wave models, which exclude IG-wave dynamics, are often used in the design and assessment of coastal dikes. Consequently, the safety of these structures in environments where IG waves dominate remains uncertain. Here, we combine physical and numerical modeling to: (1) assess the influence of various offshore, foreshore, and dike slope conditions on the dominance of IG waves over those at sea and swell (SS) frequencies; and (2) develop a predictive model for the relative magnitude of IG waves, defined as the ratio of the IG-to-SS-wave height at the dike toe. Findings show that higher, directionally narrow-banded incident waves; shallower water depths; milder foreshore slopes; reduced vegetated cover; and milder dike slopes promote IG-wave dominance. In addition, the empirical model derived, which captures the combined effect of the varied environmental parameters, allows practitioners to quickly estimate the significance of IG waves at the coast, and may also be combined with spectral wave models to extend their applicability to areas where IG waves contribute significantly.
Keywords
Ocean Engineering, Civil and Structural Engineering, Water Science and Technology, Infragravity wave, Shallow foreshore, Vegetation, Combined physical and numerical modeling, XBeach, Predictive equation, LONG WAVES, SURF BEAT, GRAVITY-WAVES, SWASH, RUNUP, DISSIPATION, GENERATION, ENERGY, MODEL, VEGETATION

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MLA
Lashley, Christopher H., et al. “Relative Magnitude of Infragravity Waves at Coastal Dikes with Shallow Foreshores : A Prediction Tool.” JOURNAL OF WATERWAY PORT COASTAL AND OCEAN ENGINEERING, vol. 146, no. 5, 2020, doi:10.1061/(asce)ww.1943-5460.0000576.
APA
Lashley, C. H., Bricker, J. D., van der Meer, J., Altomare, C., & Suzuki, T. (2020). Relative magnitude of infragravity waves at coastal dikes with shallow foreshores : a prediction tool. JOURNAL OF WATERWAY PORT COASTAL AND OCEAN ENGINEERING, 146(5). https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)ww.1943-5460.0000576
Chicago author-date
Lashley, Christopher H., Jeremy D. Bricker, Jentsje van der Meer, Corrado Altomare, and Tomohiro Suzuki. 2020. “Relative Magnitude of Infragravity Waves at Coastal Dikes with Shallow Foreshores : A Prediction Tool.” JOURNAL OF WATERWAY PORT COASTAL AND OCEAN ENGINEERING 146 (5). https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)ww.1943-5460.0000576.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Lashley, Christopher H., Jeremy D. Bricker, Jentsje van der Meer, Corrado Altomare, and Tomohiro Suzuki. 2020. “Relative Magnitude of Infragravity Waves at Coastal Dikes with Shallow Foreshores : A Prediction Tool.” JOURNAL OF WATERWAY PORT COASTAL AND OCEAN ENGINEERING 146 (5). doi:10.1061/(asce)ww.1943-5460.0000576.
Vancouver
1.
Lashley CH, Bricker JD, van der Meer J, Altomare C, Suzuki T. Relative magnitude of infragravity waves at coastal dikes with shallow foreshores : a prediction tool. JOURNAL OF WATERWAY PORT COASTAL AND OCEAN ENGINEERING. 2020;146(5).
IEEE
[1]
C. H. Lashley, J. D. Bricker, J. van der Meer, C. Altomare, and T. Suzuki, “Relative magnitude of infragravity waves at coastal dikes with shallow foreshores : a prediction tool,” JOURNAL OF WATERWAY PORT COASTAL AND OCEAN ENGINEERING, vol. 146, no. 5, 2020.
@article{8666868,
  abstract     = {{Despite the widely recognized role of infragravity (IG) waves in many often-hazardous nearshore processes, spectral wave models, which exclude IG-wave dynamics, are often used in the design and assessment of coastal dikes. Consequently, the safety of these structures in environments where IG waves dominate remains uncertain. Here, we combine physical and numerical modeling to: (1) assess the influence of various offshore, foreshore, and dike slope conditions on the dominance of IG waves over those at sea and swell (SS) frequencies; and (2) develop a predictive model for the relative magnitude of IG waves, defined as the ratio of the IG-to-SS-wave height at the dike toe. Findings show that higher, directionally narrow-banded incident waves; shallower water depths; milder foreshore slopes; reduced vegetated cover; and milder dike slopes promote IG-wave dominance. In addition, the empirical model derived, which captures the combined effect of the varied environmental parameters, allows practitioners to quickly estimate the significance of IG waves at the coast, and may also be combined with spectral wave models to extend their applicability to areas where IG waves contribute significantly.}},
  articleno    = {{04020034}},
  author       = {{Lashley, Christopher H. and Bricker, Jeremy D. and van der Meer, Jentsje and Altomare, Corrado and Suzuki, Tomohiro}},
  issn         = {{0733-950X}},
  journal      = {{JOURNAL OF WATERWAY PORT COASTAL AND OCEAN ENGINEERING}},
  keywords     = {{Ocean Engineering,Civil and Structural Engineering,Water Science and Technology,Infragravity wave,Shallow foreshore,Vegetation,Combined physical and numerical modeling,XBeach,Predictive equation,LONG WAVES,SURF BEAT,GRAVITY-WAVES,SWASH,RUNUP,DISSIPATION,GENERATION,ENERGY,MODEL,VEGETATION}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{5}},
  pages        = {{17}},
  title        = {{Relative magnitude of infragravity waves at coastal dikes with shallow foreshores : a prediction tool}},
  url          = {{http://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)ww.1943-5460.0000576}},
  volume       = {{146}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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