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Abstract
The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) phase is designed to increase by an order of magnitude the amount of data to be collected by the LHC experiments. The foreseen gradual increase of the instantaneous luminosity of up to more than twice its nominal value of 10 x 10(34) cm(-1) s(-2) during Phase I and Phase II of the LHC running, presents special challenges for the experiments. The region with high pseudo rapidity (eta) region of the forward muon spectrometer (2.4 > vertical bar eta vertical bar > 1.9) is not equipped with RPC stations. The increase of the expected particles rate up to 2 kHz cm(-2) (including a safety factor 3) motivates the installation of RPC chambers to guarantee redundancy with the CSC chambers already present. The current CMS RPC technology cannot sustain the expected background level. A new generation of Glass-RPC (GRPC) using low-resistivity glass was proposed to equip the two most far away of the four high eta muon stations of CMS. In their single-gap version they can stand rates of few kHz cm(-2). Their time precision of about 1 ns can allow to reduce the noise contribution leading to an improvement of the trigger rate. The proposed design for large size chambers is examined and some preliminary results obtained during beam tests at Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++) and Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN are shown. They were performed to validate the capability of such detectors to support high irradiation environment with limited consequence on their efficiency.
Keywords
Detector design and construction technologies and materials, Gaseous, detectors, Muon spectrometers, Resistive-plate chambers

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MLA
Lagarde, F., et al. “High Rate RPC Detector for LHC.” JOURNAL OF INSTRUMENTATION, vol. 14, Iop Publishing Ltd, 2019, doi:10.1088/1748-0221/14/10/C10037.
APA
Lagarde, F., Fagot, A., Gul, M., Roskas, C., Tytgat, M., Zaganidis, N., … Crotty, I. (2019). High rate RPC detector for LHC. JOURNAL OF INSTRUMENTATION, 14. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/14/10/C10037
Chicago author-date
Lagarde, F., Alexis Fagot, Muhammad Gul, Christos Roskas, Michael Tytgat, Nikolaos Zaganidis, S. Fonseca De Souza, et al. 2019. “High Rate RPC Detector for LHC.” JOURNAL OF INSTRUMENTATION 14. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/14/10/C10037.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Lagarde, F., Alexis Fagot, Muhammad Gul, Christos Roskas, Michael Tytgat, Nikolaos Zaganidis, S. Fonseca De Souza, A. Santoro, F. Torres Da Silva De Araujo, A. Aleksandrov, R. Hadjiiska, P. Iaydjiev, M. Rodozov, M. Shopova, G. Sultanov, A. Dimitrov, L. Litov, B. Pavlov, P. Petkov, A. Petrov, S. J. Qian, D. Han, W. Yi, C. Avila, A. Cabrera, C. Carrillo, M. Segura, S. Aly, Y. Assran, A. Mahrous, A. Mohamed, C. Combaret, M. Gouzevitch, G. Grenier, I. B. Laktineh, H. Mathez, L. Mirabito, K. Shchablo, I Bagaturia, D. Lomidze, I Lomidze, L. M. Pant, V Bhatnagar, R. Gupta, R. Kumari, M. Manisha, J. B. Singh, V Amoozegar, B. Boghrati, H. Ghasemy, S. Malmir, M. Mohammadi Najafabadi, M. Abbrescia, A. Gelmi, G. Iaselli, S. Lezki, G. Pugliese, L. Benussi, S. Bianco, D. Piccolo, F. Primavera, S. Buontempo, A. Crescenzo, G. Galati, F. Fienaga, I Orso, L. Lista, S. Meola, P. Paolucci, E. Voevodina, A. Braghieri, P. Montagna, M. Ressegotti, C. Riccardi, P. Salvini, P. Vitulo, S. W. Cho, S. Y. Choi, B. Hong, K. S. Lee, J. H. Lim, S. K. Park, J. Goh, T. J. Kim, S. Carrillo Moreno, O. Miguel Colin, F. Vazquez Valencia, S. Carpinteyro Bernardino, J. Eysermans, I Pedraza, C. Uribe Estrada, R. Reyes-Almanza, M. C. Duran-Osuna, G. Ramirez-Sanchez, A. Sanchez-Hernandez, I Rabadan-Trejo, R., H. Castilla-Valdez, A. Radi, H. Hoorani, S. Muhammad, M. A. Shah, and I Crotty. 2019. “High Rate RPC Detector for LHC.” JOURNAL OF INSTRUMENTATION 14. doi:10.1088/1748-0221/14/10/C10037.
Vancouver
1.
Lagarde F, Fagot A, Gul M, Roskas C, Tytgat M, Zaganidis N, et al. High rate RPC detector for LHC. JOURNAL OF INSTRUMENTATION. 2019;14.
IEEE
[1]
F. Lagarde et al., “High rate RPC detector for LHC,” JOURNAL OF INSTRUMENTATION, vol. 14, 2019.
@article{8666095,
  abstract     = {The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) phase is designed to increase by an order of magnitude the amount of data to be collected by the LHC experiments. The foreseen gradual increase of the instantaneous luminosity of up to more than twice its nominal value of 10 x 10(34) cm(-1) s(-2) during Phase I and Phase II of the LHC running, presents special challenges for the experiments. The region with high pseudo rapidity (eta) region of the forward muon spectrometer (2.4 > vertical bar eta vertical bar > 1.9) is not equipped with RPC stations. The increase of the expected particles rate up to 2 kHz cm(-2) (including a safety factor 3) motivates the installation of RPC chambers to guarantee redundancy with the CSC chambers already present. The current CMS RPC technology cannot sustain the expected background level. A new generation of Glass-RPC (GRPC) using low-resistivity glass was proposed to equip the two most far away of the four high eta muon stations of CMS. In their single-gap version they can stand rates of few kHz cm(-2). Their time precision of about 1 ns can allow to reduce the noise contribution leading to an improvement of the trigger rate. The proposed design for large size chambers is examined and some preliminary results obtained during beam tests at Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++) and Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN are shown. They were performed to validate the capability of such detectors to support high irradiation environment with limited consequence on their efficiency.},
  articleno    = {C10037},
  author       = {Lagarde, F. and Fagot, Alexis and Gul, Muhammad and Roskas, Christos and Tytgat, Michael and Zaganidis, Nikolaos and Fonseca De Souza, S. and Santoro, A. and Torres Da Silva De Araujo, F. and Aleksandrov, A. and Hadjiiska, R. and Iaydjiev, P. and Rodozov, M. and Shopova, M. and Sultanov, G. and Dimitrov, A. and Litov, L. and Pavlov, B. and Petkov, P. and Petrov, A. and Qian, S. J. and Han, D. and Yi, W. and Avila, C. and Cabrera, A. and Carrillo, C. and Segura, M. and Aly, S. and Assran, Y. and Mahrous, A. and Mohamed, A. and Combaret, C. and Gouzevitch, M. and Grenier, G. and Laktineh, I. B. and Mathez, H. and Mirabito, L. and Shchablo, K. and Bagaturia, I and Lomidze, D. and Lomidze, I and Pant, L. M. and Bhatnagar, V and Gupta, R. and Kumari, R. and Manisha, M. and Singh, J. B. and Amoozegar, V and Boghrati, B. and Ghasemy, H. and Malmir, S. and Najafabadi, M. Mohammadi and Abbrescia, M. and Gelmi, A. and Iaselli, G. and Lezki, S. and Pugliese, G. and Benussi, L. and Bianco, S. and Piccolo, D. and Primavera, F. and Buontempo, S. and Crescenzo, A. and Galati, G. and Fienaga, F. and Orso, I and Lista, L. and Meola, S. and Paolucci, P. and Voevodina, E. and Braghieri, A. and Montagna, P. and Ressegotti, M. and Riccardi, C. and Salvini, P. and Vitulo, P. and Cho, S. W. and Choi, S. Y. and Hong, B. and Lee, K. S. and Lim, J. H. and Park, S. K. and Goh, J. and Kim, T. J. and Carrillo Moreno, S. and Miguel Colin, O. and Vazquez Valencia, F. and Carpinteyro Bernardino, S. and Eysermans, J. and Pedraza, I and Uribe Estrada, C. and Reyes-Almanza, R. and Duran-Osuna, M. C. and Ramirez-Sanchez, G. and Sanchez-Hernandez, A. and Rabadan-Trejo, R., I and Castilla-Valdez, H. and Radi, A. and Hoorani, H. and Muhammad, S. and Shah, M. A. and Crotty, I},
  issn         = {1748-0221},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF INSTRUMENTATION},
  keywords     = {Detector design and construction technologies and materials,Gaseous,detectors,Muon spectrometers,Resistive-plate chambers},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Puerto Vallarta, Mexico},
  pages        = {10},
  publisher    = {Iop Publishing Ltd},
  title        = {High rate RPC detector for LHC},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/14/10/C10037},
  volume       = {14},
  year         = {2019},
}

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