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Associations of barn air quality parameters with ultrasonographic lung lesions, airway inflammation and infection in group-housed calves

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Abstract
Barn climate is believed to play a major role in the bovine respiratory disease complex. However, the exact air quality parameters associated with (sub)clinical pneumonia or airway inflammation in calves are currently unknown. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess associations of air quality parameters with clinical signs, lung consolidation, pulmonary inflammation and infection in group-housed calves. In total, 60 beef and dairy farms were visited from January to April 2017 and 428 calves sampled. Measured air quality parameters included continuous 24-h measurements of ammonia concentration, relative humidity and temperature and punctual measurements of air velocity, ammonia, CO2 and bacterial air load. Calf sampling consisted of clinical examination, thoracic ultrasonography and broncho-alveolar lavage sampling for bacteriological and cytological analysis of broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALf). Average air temperature was 14.2 degrees C (standard deviation (SD) 4.4, range 5.5-23.9) and relative humidity 68.8 % (SD 8.9, range 52.2-91.6). Average ammonia concentration was 1.7 ppm (SD 0.9, range 0-10.0). Lung consolidations of >= 1 cm, >= 3 cm and >= 6 cm in depth were present in 41.1 % (176/428), 27.1 % (116/428) and 16.1 % (69/428) of the calves, respectively. Average pen temperature was positively associated with consolidations of >= 1 cm (P = 0.005), >= 3 cm (P = 0.002) and >= 6 cm (P< 0.01). Ammonia exposure, in hours> 4 ppm, was associated with lung consolidation >= 1 cm (odds ratio (OR) = 1.73; confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-3.07; P = 0.04). Ammonia concentration was positively associated with BALf epithelial cell percentage (P= 0.01). Air velocity> 0.8 m/s was associated with increased odds of lung consolidation of >= 3 cm (OR= 6.8; CI= 1.2-38.5; P= 0.04) and >= 6 cm (OR = 15.9; CI = 1.2-200.0; P = 0.03). The prevalence of lung consolidations >= 1 cm was higher in the draught (81.8 %; P = 0.0092) and warm, dry and ammonia accumulation clusters (54.2 %; P = 0.02) compared to the presumably normal cluster (31.6 %). In addition, in the warm, dry and ammonia cluster the prevalence of lung consolidations >= 3 cm (38.1 %; P = 0.04) and >= 6 cm (31.4 %; P = 0.01) in depth were higher compared to the presumably normal climate cluster (18.2 % and 9.1 %, respectively). Of all frequently measured indoor air quality parameters, only average temperature, ammonia concentration and air velocity were associated with pneumonia and might therefore be preferable for cost-effective evaluation of calf barn climate.
Keywords
Temperature, Ammonia, Air velocity, Thoracic ultrasonography, Broncho-Alveolar Lavage fluid, Epithelial cell percentage, BOVINE RESPIRATORY-DISEASE, DAIRY HEIFER CALVES, BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE, AMMONIA CONCENTRATIONS, BACTERIAL PATHOGENS, RESPONSES, RISK, COLD, TEMPERATURE, MORTALITY

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MLA
van Leenen, Katharina, et al. “Associations of Barn Air Quality Parameters with Ultrasonographic Lung Lesions, Airway Inflammation and Infection in Group-Housed Calves.” PREVENTIVE VETERINARY MEDICINE, vol. 181, 2020, doi:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2020.105056.
APA
van Leenen, K., Jouret, J., Demeyer, P., Van Driessche, L., De Cremer, L., Masmeijer, C., … Pardon, B. (2020). Associations of barn air quality parameters with ultrasonographic lung lesions, airway inflammation and infection in group-housed calves. PREVENTIVE VETERINARY MEDICINE, 181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2020.105056
Chicago author-date
Leenen, Katharina van, Jonathan Jouret, Peter Demeyer, Laura Van Driessche, Lieze De Cremer, Christina Masmeijer, Filip Boyen, Piet Deprez, and Bart Pardon. 2020. “Associations of Barn Air Quality Parameters with Ultrasonographic Lung Lesions, Airway Inflammation and Infection in Group-Housed Calves.” PREVENTIVE VETERINARY MEDICINE 181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2020.105056.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
van Leenen, Katharina, Jonathan Jouret, Peter Demeyer, Laura Van Driessche, Lieze De Cremer, Christina Masmeijer, Filip Boyen, Piet Deprez, and Bart Pardon. 2020. “Associations of Barn Air Quality Parameters with Ultrasonographic Lung Lesions, Airway Inflammation and Infection in Group-Housed Calves.” PREVENTIVE VETERINARY MEDICINE 181. doi:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2020.105056.
Vancouver
1.
van Leenen K, Jouret J, Demeyer P, Van Driessche L, De Cremer L, Masmeijer C, et al. Associations of barn air quality parameters with ultrasonographic lung lesions, airway inflammation and infection in group-housed calves. PREVENTIVE VETERINARY MEDICINE. 2020;181.
IEEE
[1]
K. van Leenen et al., “Associations of barn air quality parameters with ultrasonographic lung lesions, airway inflammation and infection in group-housed calves,” PREVENTIVE VETERINARY MEDICINE, vol. 181, 2020.
@article{8665893,
  abstract     = {{Barn climate is believed to play a major role in the bovine respiratory disease complex. However, the exact air quality parameters associated with (sub)clinical pneumonia or airway inflammation in calves are currently unknown. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess associations of air quality parameters with clinical signs, lung consolidation, pulmonary inflammation and infection in group-housed calves. In total, 60 beef and dairy farms were visited from January to April 2017 and 428 calves sampled. Measured air quality parameters included continuous 24-h measurements of ammonia concentration, relative humidity and temperature and punctual measurements of air velocity, ammonia, CO2 and bacterial air load. Calf sampling consisted of clinical examination, thoracic ultrasonography and broncho-alveolar lavage sampling for bacteriological and cytological analysis of broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALf). Average air temperature was 14.2 degrees C (standard deviation (SD) 4.4, range 5.5-23.9) and relative humidity 68.8 % (SD 8.9, range 52.2-91.6). Average ammonia concentration was 1.7 ppm (SD 0.9, range 0-10.0). Lung consolidations of >= 1 cm, >= 3 cm and >= 6 cm in depth were present in 41.1 % (176/428), 27.1 % (116/428) and 16.1 % (69/428) of the calves, respectively. Average pen temperature was positively associated with consolidations of >= 1 cm (P = 0.005), >= 3 cm (P = 0.002) and >= 6 cm (P< 0.01). Ammonia exposure, in hours> 4 ppm, was associated with lung consolidation >= 1 cm (odds ratio (OR) = 1.73; confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-3.07; P = 0.04). Ammonia concentration was positively associated with BALf epithelial cell percentage (P= 0.01). Air velocity> 0.8 m/s was associated with increased odds of lung consolidation of >= 3 cm (OR= 6.8; CI= 1.2-38.5; P= 0.04) and >= 6 cm (OR = 15.9; CI = 1.2-200.0; P = 0.03). The prevalence of lung consolidations >= 1 cm was higher in the draught (81.8 %; P = 0.0092) and warm, dry and ammonia accumulation clusters (54.2 %; P = 0.02) compared to the presumably normal cluster (31.6 %). In addition, in the warm, dry and ammonia cluster the prevalence of lung consolidations >= 3 cm (38.1 %; P = 0.04) and >= 6 cm (31.4 %; P = 0.01) in depth were higher compared to the presumably normal climate cluster (18.2 % and 9.1 %, respectively). Of all frequently measured indoor air quality parameters, only average temperature, ammonia concentration and air velocity were associated with pneumonia and might therefore be preferable for cost-effective evaluation of calf barn climate.}},
  articleno    = {{105056}},
  author       = {{van Leenen, Katharina and Jouret, Jonathan and Demeyer, Peter and Van Driessche, Laura and De Cremer, Lieze and Masmeijer, Christina and Boyen, Filip and Deprez, Piet and Pardon, Bart}},
  issn         = {{0167-5877}},
  journal      = {{PREVENTIVE VETERINARY MEDICINE}},
  keywords     = {{Temperature,Ammonia,Air velocity,Thoracic ultrasonography,Broncho-Alveolar Lavage fluid,Epithelial cell percentage,BOVINE RESPIRATORY-DISEASE,DAIRY HEIFER CALVES,BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE,AMMONIA CONCENTRATIONS,BACTERIAL PATHOGENS,RESPONSES,RISK,COLD,TEMPERATURE,MORTALITY}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{11}},
  title        = {{Associations of barn air quality parameters with ultrasonographic lung lesions, airway inflammation and infection in group-housed calves}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2020.105056}},
  volume       = {{181}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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