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Expert-based development of a generic HACCP-based risk management system to prevent critical negative energy balance in dairy herds

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Abstract
The objective of this study was to develop a generic risk management system based on the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles for the prevention of critical negative energy balance (NEB) in dairy herds using an expert panel approach. In addition, we discuss the advantages and limitations of the system in terms of implementation in the individual dairy herd. For the expert panel, we invited 30 researchers and advisors with expertise in the field of dairy cow feeding and/or health management from eight European regions. They were invited to a Delphi-based set-up that included three inter-correlated questionnaires in which they were asked to suggest risk factors for critical NEB and to score these based on 'effect' and 'probability'. Finally, the experts were asked to suggest critical control points (CCPs) specified by alarm values, monitoring frequency and corrective actions related to the most relevant risk factors in an operational farm setting. A total of 12 experts (40 %) completed all three questionnaires. Of these 12 experts, seven were researchers and five were advisors and in total they represented seven out of the eight European regions addressed in the questionnaire study. When asking for suggestions on risk factors and CCPs, these were formulated as 'open questions', and the experts' suggestions were numerous and overlapping. The suggestions were merged via a process of linguistic editing in order to eliminate doublets. The editing process revealed that the experts provided a total of 34 CCPs for the 11 risk factors they scored as most important. The consensus among experts was relatively high when scoring the most important risk factors, while there were more diverse suggestions of CCPs with specification of alarm values and corrective actions. We therefore concluded that the expert panel approach only partly succeeded in developing a generic HACCP for critical NEB in dairy cows. We recommend that the output of this paper is used to inform key areas for implementation on the individual dairy farm by local farm teams including farmers and their advisors, who together can conduct herd-specific risk factor profiling, organise the ongoing monitoring of herd-specific CCPs, as well as implement corrective actions when CCP alarm values are exceeded.
Keywords
HAZARD ANALYSIS, ANIMAL HEALTH, PRINCIPLES, Dairy cow, Management, Expert panel, HACCP, Negative energy balance

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MLA
Rousing, Tine, et al. “Expert-Based Development of a Generic HACCP-Based Risk Management System to Prevent Critical Negative Energy Balance in Dairy Herds.” PREVENTIVE VETERINARY MEDICINE, vol. 175, 2020, doi:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2019.104849.
APA
Rousing, T., Holm, J. R., Krogh, M. A., Ostergaard, S., Crowe, M., McLoughlin, N., … Vera, S. P. (2020). Expert-based development of a generic HACCP-based risk management system to prevent critical negative energy balance in dairy herds. PREVENTIVE VETERINARY MEDICINE, 175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2019.104849
Chicago author-date
Rousing, Tine, Janne Rothmann Holm, Mogens Agerbo Krogh, Soren Ostergaard, Mark Crowe, Niamh McLoughlin, Alan Fahey, et al. 2020. “Expert-Based Development of a Generic HACCP-Based Risk Management System to Prevent Critical Negative Energy Balance in Dairy Herds.” PREVENTIVE VETERINARY MEDICINE 175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2019.104849.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Rousing, Tine, Janne Rothmann Holm, Mogens Agerbo Krogh, Soren Ostergaard, Mark Crowe, Niamh McLoughlin, Alan Fahey, Fiona Carter, Elizabeth Matthews, Andreia Santoro, Colin Byrne, Pauline Rudd, Roisin O’Flaherty, Sinead Hallinan, Claire Wathes, Mazdak Salavati, Zhangrui Cheng, Ali Fouladi, Geoff Pollott, Dirk Werling, Beatriz Sanz Bernardo, Conrad Ferris, Alistair Wylie, Matt Bell, Mieke Van Eetvelde, Kristof Hermans, Miel Hostens, Geert Opsomer, Sander Moerman, Jenne De Koster, Hannes Bogaert, Jan Vandepitte, Leila Vande Velde, Bonifacius Van Ranst, Klaus Ingvartsen, Martin Tang Sorensen, Johanna Hoglund, Susanne Dahl, Janne Rothmann, Mogens Krogh, Else Meyer, Leslie Foldager, Charlotte Gaillard, Jehan Ettema, Torben Larsen, Victor H. Silva de Oliveira, Cinzia Marchitelli, Federica Signorelli, Francesco Napolitano, Bianca Moioli, Alessandra Crisa, Luca Buttazzoni, Jennifer McClure, Daragh Matthews, Francis Kearney, Andrew Cromie, Matt McClure, Shujun Zhang, Xing Chen, Huanchun Chen, Junlong Zhao, Liguo Yang, Guohua Hua, Chen Tan, Guiqiang Wang, Michel Bonneau, Marlene Sciarretta, Armin Pearn, Arnold Evertson, Linda Kosten, Anders Fogh, Thomas Andersen, Matthew Lucy, Chris Elsik, Gavin Conant, Jerry Taylor, Deborah Triant, Nicolas Gengler, Michel Georges, Frederic Colinet, Marilou Ramos Pamplona, Hedi Hammami, Catherine Bastin, Haruko Takeda, Aurelie Laine, Anne-Sophie Van Laere, Rodrigo Mota, Saied Naderi Darbagshahi, Frederic Dehareng, Clement Grelet, Amelie Vanlierde, Eric Froidmont, Frank Becker, Martin Schulze, and Sergio Palma Vera. 2020. “Expert-Based Development of a Generic HACCP-Based Risk Management System to Prevent Critical Negative Energy Balance in Dairy Herds.” PREVENTIVE VETERINARY MEDICINE 175. doi:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2019.104849.
Vancouver
1.
Rousing T, Holm JR, Krogh MA, Ostergaard S, Crowe M, McLoughlin N, et al. Expert-based development of a generic HACCP-based risk management system to prevent critical negative energy balance in dairy herds. PREVENTIVE VETERINARY MEDICINE. 2020;175.
IEEE
[1]
T. Rousing et al., “Expert-based development of a generic HACCP-based risk management system to prevent critical negative energy balance in dairy herds,” PREVENTIVE VETERINARY MEDICINE, vol. 175, 2020.
@article{8664259,
  abstract     = {The objective of this study was to develop a generic risk management system based on the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles for the prevention of critical negative energy balance (NEB) in dairy herds using an expert panel approach. In addition, we discuss the advantages and limitations of the system in terms of implementation in the individual dairy herd. For the expert panel, we invited 30 researchers and advisors with expertise in the field of dairy cow feeding and/or health management from eight European regions. They were invited to a Delphi-based set-up that included three inter-correlated questionnaires in which they were asked to suggest risk factors for critical NEB and to score these based on 'effect' and 'probability'. Finally, the experts were asked to suggest critical control points (CCPs) specified by alarm values, monitoring frequency and corrective actions related to the most relevant risk factors in an operational farm setting. A total of 12 experts (40 %) completed all three questionnaires. Of these 12 experts, seven were researchers and five were advisors and in total they represented seven out of the eight European regions addressed in the questionnaire study. When asking for suggestions on risk factors and CCPs, these were formulated as 'open questions', and the experts' suggestions were numerous and overlapping. The suggestions were merged via a process of linguistic editing in order to eliminate doublets. The editing process revealed that the experts provided a total of 34 CCPs for the 11 risk factors they scored as most important. The consensus among experts was relatively high when scoring the most important risk factors, while there were more diverse suggestions of CCPs with specification of alarm values and corrective actions. We therefore concluded that the expert panel approach only partly succeeded in developing a generic HACCP for critical NEB in dairy cows. We recommend that the output of this paper is used to inform key areas for implementation on the individual dairy farm by local farm teams including farmers and their advisors, who together can conduct herd-specific risk factor profiling, organise the ongoing monitoring of herd-specific CCPs, as well as implement corrective actions when CCP alarm values are exceeded.},
  articleno    = {104849},
  author       = {Rousing, Tine and Holm, Janne Rothmann and Krogh, Mogens Agerbo and Ostergaard, Soren and Crowe, Mark and McLoughlin, Niamh and Fahey, Alan and Carter, Fiona and Matthews, Elizabeth and Santoro, Andreia and Byrne, Colin and Rudd, Pauline and O'Flaherty, Roisin and Hallinan, Sinead and Wathes, Claire and Salavati, Mazdak and Cheng, Zhangrui and Fouladi, Ali and Pollott, Geoff and Werling, Dirk and Bernardo, Beatriz Sanz and Ferris, Conrad and Wylie, Alistair and Bell, Matt and Van Eetvelde, Mieke and Hermans, Kristof and Hostens, Miel and Opsomer, Geert and Moerman, Sander and De Koster, Jenne and Bogaert, Hannes and Vandepitte, Jan and Vande Velde, Leila and Van Ranst, Bonifacius and Ingvartsen, Klaus and Sorensen, Martin Tang and Hoglund, Johanna and Dahl, Susanne and Rothmann, Janne and Krogh, Mogens and Meyer, Else and Foldager, Leslie and Gaillard, Charlotte and Ettema, Jehan and Larsen, Torben and de Oliveira, Victor H. Silva and Marchitelli, Cinzia and Signorelli, Federica and Napolitano, Francesco and Moioli, Bianca and Crisa, Alessandra and Buttazzoni, Luca and McClure, Jennifer and Matthews, Daragh and Kearney, Francis and Cromie, Andrew and McClure, Matt and Zhang, Shujun and Chen, Xing and Chen, Huanchun and Zhao, Junlong and Yang, Liguo and Hua, Guohua and Tan, Chen and Wang, Guiqiang and Bonneau, Michel and Sciarretta, Marlene and Pearn, Armin and Evertson, Arnold and Kosten, Linda and Fogh, Anders and Andersen, Thomas and Lucy, Matthew and Elsik, Chris and Conant, Gavin and Taylor, Jerry and Triant, Deborah and Gengler, Nicolas and Georges, Michel and Colinet, Frederic and Pamplona, Marilou Ramos and Hammami, Hedi and Bastin, Catherine and Takeda, Haruko and Laine, Aurelie and Van Laere, Anne-Sophie and Mota, Rodrigo and Darbagshahi, Saied Naderi and Dehareng, Frederic and Grelet, Clement and Vanlierde, Amelie and Froidmont, Eric and Becker, Frank and Schulze, Martin and Vera, Sergio Palma},
  issn         = {0167-5877},
  journal      = {PREVENTIVE VETERINARY MEDICINE},
  keywords     = {HAZARD ANALYSIS,ANIMAL HEALTH,PRINCIPLES,Dairy cow,Management,Expert panel,HACCP,Negative energy balance},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {7},
  title        = {Expert-based development of a generic HACCP-based risk management system to prevent critical negative energy balance in dairy herds},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2019.104849},
  volume       = {175},
  year         = {2020},
}

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